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Supplemental Information and References: DNA the Easy Way(and “Gram Stain” Without the Mess)

Supplementary information:

Sources of bacterial cultures:
Bacterial cultures can be obtained from various sources, including the American Type Culture Collection, Carolina Biological Supply, some K-12 Mentors listed in this site, and individual researchers.

American Type Culture Collection
10801 University Boulevard
Manassas, VA 20110-2209

Address for products and services:
American Type Culture Collection
P. O. Box 1549
Manassas, VA 20108-1549

To order cultures or check order status:
Phone: 1-800-638-6597 (USA and Canada)

Carolina Biological Supply Company
2700 York Road
Burlington, NC 27215-3398

USA and Canadian customers:
Call: 1-800-334-5551
FAX: 1-800-222-7112


Carroll, J. E. 1994. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology, National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Reston, VA. (This is a good general reference for laboratory safety and procedure, culture media preparation, and how to grow bacterial cultures.)

Needham, C., Hoagland, M., McPherson, K., and Dodson, B. 2000. Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth, ASM Press, Washington, D.C. (Companion book to the PBS four part science documentary of the same name. This illustrated book was written for a general audience and provides an excellent introduction to the world of microbes.)


1. The Structure of DNA

2. The Basics of Agricultural Biotechnology

3. The American Society of Microbiology (ASM) on its website at lists a number of resources for teachers: including a series of classroom activities. In addition, a listing of many additional items, some freely available and some by-subscription, may be found at

4) The Microbe Zoo

Excellent website on microorganisms written by scientists at Michigan State University.

Click on an area of the Microbe Zoo map, e.g. Dirtland, Animal Pavillion, Water World, etc., to learn more about microorganisms that live in those habitats.

5) Bugs in the News

Collection of special topics about microorganisms. You may have heard about a particular microbe, e.g. E. coli in hamburger, Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal reflux disease (GIRD), in the news and would like to know more about it. This is the place to go to find out more! Interesting and informative.


Carroll, J. E. 1994. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology, National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Reston, VA.

Ryu, E. 1938. On the Gram-differentiation of bacteria by the simplest method. J. Jpn. Soc. Vet. Sci. 17:31.

Schumann, G. L. 1991. Plant Diseases: Their Biology and Social Impact. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Chapter 5. Genes and Genetic engineering, pp. 95-121.

Suslow, T. V., Schroth, M. N., and Isaka, M. 1982. Application of a rapid method for gram differentiation of plant pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria without staining. Phytopathology 72:917-918