F. Mahmodi, J. B. Kadir, M. Y. Wong, and A. Nasehi, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; A. Puteh, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; and N. Soleimani, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most economically important crops in the world, and anthracnose is known to infect soybean in most countries. Colletotrichum truncatum is the common pathogen causing anthracnose of soybean. However, at least five species of Colletotrichum have been reported on soybean worldwide (2). In July 2010, anthracnose symptoms were observed on soybean in the experimental fields of the agriculture station in Ladang Dua, University Putra Malaysia located in Selangor state of Malaysia. Symptoms were initially observed on a few plants randomly within one field, but after 4 weeks, the disease was found in two additional fields scattered across an area of 1 km2. Pinkish-brown lesions were observed on the pods, and the formation of dark lesions on the leaves and stems was sometimes followed by stem girdling, dieback, and distorted growth. At later stages, numerous epidermal acervuli developed in the lesions, and mucilaginous conidial masses appeared during periods of high relative humidity. Conidia produced in acervuli were straight, cylindric, hyaline, and aseptate, with both ends rounded. Conidia measured (mean ± SD) 14.2 ± 0.6 × 3.6 ± 0.7 μm, and the L/W ratio was 3.95 μm. Six isolates of the fungus were obtained and identified as C. gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characterization (3). The isolates were deposited in the University Putra of Malaysia Culture Collection (UPMCC). PDA cultures were white at first and subsequently became grayish to pink to reddish-brown. Amplification and sequence analysis of coding and none-coding regions of the ITS-rDNA (GenBank JX669450), actin (JX827430), β-tubulin (JX827454), histone (JX827448), chitin synthase (JX827436), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (JX827442) obtained from the representative isolate, CGM50, aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank and revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. gloeosporioides strains (JX258757, JX009790, GQ849434, HM575301, JQ005413, and JX00948 from GenBank). One representative isolate, CGM50, was used for pathogenicity testing. Four non-infected detached leaves and pods of 24-day-old G. max var. Palmetto were surface-sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of a conidial suspension (106 conidia ml–1) using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method (4), with 10 μl distilled water as a negative control. Leaves and pods were incubated at 25°C, 98% RH. The experiment was repeated twice. Five days after inoculation, the development of typical field symptoms, including acervuli formation, occurred on the leaves and pods of inoculated plants, but not on the negative controls. A fungus with the same colony and conidial morphology as CGM50 was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated leaves and pods. Anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides on soybean plants has been reported previously in different countries, but not in Malaysia (3). Geographically, the climate of Malaysia is highly conducive to maintain and cause outbreaks of anthracnose all year round; thus, the development of management recommendations will be inevitable for anthracnose control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose on soybean in Malaysia.
References: (1) U. Damm et al. Fungal Diversity 39:45, 2009. (2) S. L. Chen et al. J. Phytopathol. 154:654, 2006. (3) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its Anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (4) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008.
ERRATUM: A correction was made to this Disease Note on May 19, 2014. The author N. Soleimani was added.