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A Rapid Resazurin-Based Microtiter Assay to Evaluate QoI Sensitivity for Alternaria alternata Isolates and Their Molecular Characterization

September 2012 , Volume 96 , Number  9
Pages  1,262 - 1,270

Byron Vega, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred; Daniele Liberti and Philip F. Harmon, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville; and Megan M. Dewdney, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred

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Accepted for publication 28 February 2012.

Chemical management of Alternaria brown spot of citrus is based upon the timely application of site-specific fungicides, many of which are vulnerable to the development of fungicide resistance. A rapid microtiter bioassay based on the colorimetric changes of resazurin (RZ) dye was developed to evaluate the sensitivity of Alternaria alternata to quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. Four liquid media (complete medium, minimal medium, potato dextrose broth, and yeast peptone dextrose broth), five conidia concentrations (from 101 to 105 conidia/ ml), and five RZ concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM) were evaluated. Complete medium at 105 conidia/ml and 40 μM RZ were identified as optimal for measuring RZ reduction. The effective concentration of two QoI fungicides (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin) needed to reduce RZ by 50% (EC50) was calculated and compared with those obtained from conidia germination tests on fungicide-amended media. Concordant EC50 values were observed (R2 = 0.923; P < 0.0001) from both methods. Resistant phenotypes were further characterized by the partial sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. Genetic variability associated with the presence or absence of two introns was observed among isolates. The identified resistant isolates had the amino acid substitution G143A, typical of QoI resistance in other fungi.

© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society