K. K. Bastas, Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Konya, 42075, Turkey; and A. Karakaya, Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, DIskapI, Ankara, 06110, Turkey
A new disease was observed during the spring and autumn of 2009 and 2010 on kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) in Rize Province of Turkey. Disease incidence was estimated as 3% in approximately 10 ha. Symptoms were characterized by dark brown spots surrounded by yellow halos on leaves and cankers with reddish exudate production on twigs and stems. Eight representative bacterial strains were isolated from leaf spots and tissues under the bark on King's B medium (KB) and identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on the basis of biochemical, physiological (1,2), and PCR tests (3). Bacteria were gram negative, rod shaped, and nonfluorescent on KB; positive for levan production, sucrose and inositol utilization, and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley) hypersensitivity; and negative for growth at 37°C, oxidase, potato soft rot, arginine dihydrolase, urease, arbutin, erythritol, lactic acid, aesculin hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, and syringomycin production. Identity of the eight isolates was confirmed by PCR using P. syringae pv. actinidiae-specific primers PsaF1/R3 to generate a 280-bp DNA fragment (3). P. syringae pv. actinidiae reference strain NCPPB 3739, and CJW7 from Jae Sung Jung, Department of Biology, Sunchon National University, Korea, were employed in all biochemical, physiological, and molecular tests as positive controls. Pathogenicity was confirmed by artificial inoculation of 2-year-old A. deliciosa cv. Hayward. A bacterial suspension (108 CFU ml–1) was injected into kiwifruit twig tips, stems, and leaves with a hypodermic syringe, and the inoculated plants were placed at 25 to 28°C and 80% relative humidity growth chamber for 3 weeks. First symptoms were observed on leaves within 5 days after inoculation and on twigs after 20 days. No symptoms were observed on control plants that were inoculated with sterile water. Reisolation was made from dark brown lesions surrounded by yellow halos on leaves and cankers on twigs and stem and their identities were confirmed using the techniques previously described. All tests were performed three times and pathogenicity tests employed three plants for each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. syringae pv. actinidiae causing disease on kiwifruit in Turkey. Kiwifruit production in Turkey has expanded rapidly during the last 10 years (http://www.tuik.gov.tr) and phytosanitary measures are needed to prevent further spread of the bacterium to other kiwifruit orchards.
References: (1) Y. J. Koh et al. N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 38:4, 275, 2010. (2) R. A. Lelliott and D. E. Stead. Methods for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases of Plants. Blackwell Scientific, Sussex, UK, 1988. (3) J. Rees-George et al. Plant Pathol. 59:453, 2010.