J. Karkashian, Escuela de Biología y Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular (CIBCM), Universidad de Costa Rica;
E. D. Ramos-Reynoso, CIBCM, Universidad de Costa Rica;
D. P. Maxwell, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin–Madison 53706; and
P. Ramírez, CIBCM, Universidad de Costa Rica
Begomovirus spp. cause substantial losses in bean crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. The predominant Begomovirus sp. in Central America associated with golden mosaic symptoms in bean is Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). However, Calopogonium golden mosaic virus was previously found to infect bean crops in the northern region of Costa Rica. The objective of this research was to identify Begomovirus spp. that infect bean plants in different geographical regions of Nicaragua. In all, 126 samples of young bean leaves with symptoms of golden mosaic were collected from eight different regions of Nicaragua. Using DNA hybridization with specific probes, 120 samples tested positive for BGYMV, 14 samples tested positive for Squash yellow mild mottle virus, and 7 samples tested positive for Calopogonium golden mosaic virus. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products from three samples (MA-9 Managua, BE-8 Rivas, and SO-9 Granada) also indicated that the symptoms of golden mosaic in bean are associated with viral sequences from three different Begomovirus spp. Management of bean golden mosaic disease must take into account that BGYMV is the predominant virus (95% of the samples) and that 12% of the samples exhibited possible mixed infections or recombination events in the south and central geographical regions of Nicaragua.