H. J. Tozze, Jr. and
N. M. Massola, Jr., Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, ESALQ/USP, CP9, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil;
M. P. S. Câmara, Departamento de Agronomia, UFRPE, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil; and
K. R. Brunelli,
R. S. Braga, and
R. F. Kobori, Sakata Seed Sudamerica, CP427, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil
Colletotrichum boninense was isolated from pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits (cv. Amanda) with preharvest anthracnose symptoms collected in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo in July of 2005. In the field, the disease affected mature fruits and leaves with an incidence near 25%. Typical symptoms in fruits were circular, sunken lesions with orange spore masses in a dark center. Three single conidia isolates were obtained from infected fruits. When grown on potato dextrose agar at 25°C with a 12-h photoperiod, these isolates produced white colonies with a cream-to-orange color in the opposite side, but no sclerotia. Conidia were cylindrical, had obtuse ends and a hilum-like low protuberance at the base, and measured 13.5 to 15.5 × 4.6 to 5.1 μm. Conidial length/width ratio was 2.8 to 3.0. These morphological characteristics are consistent with the description of C. boninense (1). To confirm pathogen identity, the internal transcribed spacer rRNA region was sequenced (GenBank Accession Nos. FJ010199, FJ010200, and FJ010201) and compared with the same region of C. boninense (GenBank Accession No. DQ286160.1). Similarity between these sequences was 98 to 99%. The pathogenicity of the three isolates was determined on pepper fruits cv. Amanda. Attached as well as detached fruits from potted plants were inoculated. Inoculation was performed by depositing 40-μl droplets of a suspension (105 conidia per ml) on the surfaces of nonwounded (detached n = 5; attached n = 5) and wounded (detached n = 5; attached n = 5) fruits with a sterilized hypodermic needle. Incubation took place in a moist chamber for 12 days at 25°C with a 12-h photoperiod. Inoculation of control fruits was similar in procedure and number to that of test fruits, except sterile distilled water was used instead of the conidial suspension. Symptoms, observed in wounded and nonwounded test fruits 3 to 5 days after inoculation, were characterized by necrotic, sunken zones containing acervuli, black setae, and orange spore masses. Control fruits presented no symptoms. Pathogens reisolated from infected fruits showed the same morphological and molecular characteristics of the isolates previously inoculated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. boninense infecting pepper in Brazil.
Reference: (1) J. Moriwaki et al. Mycoscience 44:47, 2003.