A histological study of red stripe of rice was conducted to elucidate the mode of infection of the causal bacterium Microbacterium sp. When pin-point-sized spots first appeared at 3 days after inoculation, the bacterial cells had entered through stomata and multiplied in the intercellular spaces of substomatal parenchymatous tissues. With the early appearance of small yellow spots at 4 to 5 days after inoculation, the bacterium was detected in some xylem vessels as well as in parenchymatous tissues, and it had apparently translocated directly from parenchymatous tissues to transverse vascular systems through spiral vessel walls. With the appearance of typical red stripe symptoms comprised of orange lesions and halos at 8 days after inoculation, bacterial masses were present in transverse and longitudinal vascular bundles in areas with orange lesions. In the areas with orange to light brown spots, granules that stained dark blue using Stoughton's method appeared in the protoplasm of the host parenchymatous cells, which later became necrotic. In halo areas, bacterial masses were observed only in some cases, and chloroplasts were disorganized. Bacterial infection was also confirmed by observing sections of naturally infected samples, and the distribution of bacteria was much more extensive than in artificially inoculated samples.