Yosuke Matsushita and
First author: NARO Institute of Floricultural Science, 2-1 Fujimoto, Tsukuba 305-8519, Japan; and second author: NARO Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan.
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Accepted for publication 22 February 2014.
Embryo infection is important for efficient seed transmission of viroids. To identify the major pattern of seed transmission of viroids, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in each developmental stage of petunia (flowering to mature seed stages). In floral organs, PSTVd was present in the reproductive tissues of infected female × infected male and infected female × healthy male but not of healthy female × infected male before embryogenesis. After pollination, PSTVd was detected in the developed embryo and endosperm in all three crosses. These findings indicate that PSTVd is indirectly delivered to the embryo through ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis but not directly through maternal tissues as cell-to-cell movement during embryogenesis.
© 2014 The American Phytopathological Society