Olufemi J. Alabi,
Maher Al Rwahnih,
Tefera A. Mekuria, and
Rayapati A. Naidu
First, third, and fourth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Prosser 99350; and second author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616.
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Accepted for publication 17 October 2013.
Grapevine virus A (GVA; genus Vitivirus, family Betaflexiviridae) has been implicated with the Kober stem grooving disorder of the rugose wood disease complex. In this study, 26 isolates of GVA recovered from wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars from California and Washington were analyzed for their genetic diversity. An analysis of a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and complete coat protein (CP) sequences revealed intra- and inter-isolate sequence diversity. Our results indicated that both RdRp and CP are under strong negative selection based on the normalized values for the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site. A global phylogenetic analysis of CP sequences revealed segregation of virus isolates into four major clades with no geographic clustering. In contrast, the RdRp-based phylogenetic tree indicated segregation of GVA isolates from California and Washington into six clades, independent of geographic origin or cultivar. Phylogenetic network coupled with recombination analyses showed putative recombination events in both RdRp and CP sequence data sets, with more of these events located in the CP sequence. The preponderance of divergent variants of GVA co-replicating within individual grapevines could increase viral genotypic complexity with implications for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary history of the virus. The knowledge of genetic diversity of GVA generated in this study will provide a foundation for elucidating the epidemiological characteristics of virus populations at different scales and implementing appropriate management strategies for minimizing the spread of genetic variants of the virus by vectors and via planting materials supplied to nurseries and grape growers.
© 2014 The American Phytopathological Society