Yulin Jia, and
First author: Agricultural Environment and Resources Research Institute, and second author: Flower Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650205, China; third author: U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center, Stuttgart, AR; and fourth author: The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Agricultural Biodiversity and Pest Management, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650201, China.
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Accepted for publication 9 January 2014.
Rice blast is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequence variation of avirulence (AVR) genes of AVR-Pita1 in field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae in order to understand the effectiveness of the resistance gene Pi-ta in China. Genomic DNA of 366 isolates of M. oryzae collected from Yunnan province of China were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to examine the existence of AVR-Pita1 using gene-specific PCR markers. Results of PCR products revealed that 218 isolates of M. oryzae carry AVR-Pita1. Among of them, 62.5, 56.3, 58.5, 46.7, 72.4, and 57.4% of M. oryzae carry AVR-Pita1 from northeastern, southeast, western, northwest, southwestern, and central Yunnan province, respectively. The detection rate of AVR-Pita1 was, in order: southwestern > northeastern > western > central > southeastern > northwestern Yunnan province. Moreover, in total, 18 AVR-Pita1 haplotypes encoding 13 novel AVR-Pita1 variants were identified among 60 isolates. Most DNA sequence variation was found to occur in the exon region, resulting in amino acid substitution. Six virulent haplotypes of AVR-Pita1 to Pita were identified among 60 field isolates. The AVR-Pita1 has evolved to virulence from avirulent origins via base substitution. These findings demonstrate that AVR-Pita1 is under positive selection and mutations of AVR-Pita1 are responsible for defeating race-specific resistance in nature.
© 2014 The American Phytopathological Society