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Genetic Diversity of Transcriptional Activator-Like Effector Genes in Chinese Isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

July 2014 , Volume 104 , Number  7
Pages  672 - 682

Zhi-Yuan Ji, Muhammad Zakria, Li-Fang Zou, Li Xiong, Zheng Li, Guang-Hai Ji, and Gong-You Chen

First, second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh authors: School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China; and sixth author: Key Laboratory for Plant Pathology of Yunnan Province, College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

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Accepted for publication 7 January 2014.

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS), a devastating disease of rice in Asia countries. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola utilizes repertoires of transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) to manipulate host resistance or susceptibility; thus, TALEs can determine the outcome of BLS. In this report, we studied genetic diversity in putative tale genes of 65 X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains that originated from nine provinces of southern China. Genomic DNAs from the 65 strains were digested with BamHI and hybridized with an internal fragment of avrXa3, a tale gene originating from the related pathogen, X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB). Southern blot analysis indicated that the strains contained a variable number (9 to 22) of avrXa3-hybridizing fragments (e.g., putative tale genes). Based on the number and size of hybridizing bands, strains were classified into 14 genotypes (designated 1 to 14), and genotypes 3 and 10 represented 29.23 and 24.64% of the total, respectively. A high molecular weight BamHI fragment (HMWB; ≈6.0 kb) was present in 12 of the 14 genotypes, and sequence analysis of the HMWB revealed the presence of a C-terminally truncated tale, an insertion element related to IS1403, and genes encoding phosphoglycerate mutase and endonuclease V. Primers were developed from the 6.0-kb HMWB fragment and showed potential in genotyping X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains by polymerase chain reaction. Virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains was assessed on 23 rice cultivars containing different resistance genes for BLB. The X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains could be grouped into 14 pathotypes (I to XIV), and the grouping of strains was almost identical to the categories determined by genotypic analysis. In general, strains containing higher numbers of putative tale genes were more virulent on rice than strains containing fewer tales. The results also indicate that there are no gene-for-gene relationships between the tested rice lines and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. To our knowledge, this is the first description of genetic diversity of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains based on tale gene analysis.

© 2014 The American Phytopathological Society