Sabrina Palmano, and
First, second, and fifth authors: Plant Virology Institute, National Research Council (IVV-CNR), Grugliasco Unit, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco-TO, Italy; and third and fourth authors: Plant Virology Institute, National Research Council (IVV-CNR), Torino, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino, Italy.
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Accepted for publication 3 March 2013.
Flavescence dorée (FD) is considered one of the most severe phytoplasma diseases affecting grapevine. The spontaneous, complete, and stable remission of the symptoms of FD (recovery) is a phenomenon that may occur in infected grapevines. The molecular bases of this phenomenon are still unclear, although some works suggest that recovery could be linked to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Several genes coding for enzymes involved in H2O2 metabolism, in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, defense responses, and the biosynthesis of hormones were identified. The H2O2 content was biochemically determined and the expression levels of 44 genes were analyzed through quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in healthy (H), infected by FD-associated phytoplasma (I), and 2-years-recovered (R) plants of Vitis vinifera ‘Barbera’. In tissues of R plants, large amounts of H2O2 were detected, essentially linked to an upregulation of genes involved in the production of H2O2 (germin-like protein and glycolate oxidase); whereas, in I grapevines, the overexpression of some scavenging genes reduced the quantity of H2O2. The recovery state was characterized by the activation of ethylene biosynthesis and of defense genes not linked to salicylic acid (SA) signaling, such as the WRKY2 transcription factor. Conversely, I plants reacted to phytoplasma with SA-mediated signaling, even though this response does not appear to be effective against the pathogen.
reactive oxygen species.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society