J. R. Chapman,
R. K. Taylor,
B. S. Weir,
M. K. Romberg,
J. L. Vanneste,
J. Luck, and
B. J. R. Alexander
First, second, fourth, and seventh authors: Plant Health and Environment Laboratory, Ministry for Primary Industries, P.O. Box 2095, Auckland 1140, New Zealand; third author: Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; fifth author: The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd., Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand; and sixth author: Biosciences Research Division, Department of Primary Industries, 621 Burwood Highway, Knoxfield, Victoria 3180, Australia, and Department of Botany, La Trobe University, Victoria, 3086, Australia.
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Accepted for publication 30 July 2012.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) vines, was first detected in Japan in 1984, followed by detections in Korea and Italy in the early 1990s. Isolates causing more severe disease symptoms have recently been detected in several countries with a wide global distribution, including Italy, New Zealand, and China. In order to characterize P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations globally, a representative set of 40 isolates from New Zealand, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and Chile were selected for extensive genetic analysis. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of housekeeping, type III effector and phytotoxin genes was used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between P. syringae pv. actinidiae isolates worldwide. Four additional isolates, including one from China, for which shotgun sequence of the whole genome was available, were included in phylogenetic analyses. It is shown that at least four P. syringae pv. actinidiae MLSA groups are present globally, and that marker sets with differing evolutionary trajectories (conserved housekeeping and rapidly evolving effector genes) readily differentiate all four groups. The MLSA group designated here as Psa3 is the strain causing secondary symptoms such as formation of cankers, production of exudates, and cane and shoot dieback on some kiwifruit orchards in Italy and New Zealand. It is shown that isolates from Chile also belong to this MLSA group. MLSA group Psa4, detected in isolates collected in New Zealand and Australia, has not been previously described. P. syringae pv. actinidiae has an extensive global distribution yet the isolates causing widespread losses to the kiwifruit industry can all be traced to a single MLSA group, Psa3.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society