J. U. Blandón-Díaz,
N. Högberg, and
J. E. Yuen
First author: Universidad Nacional Agraria, Apartado postal 453, Nicaragua and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, P.O. Box 7026, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; second, fourth, fifth, and sixth authors: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology; and third author: MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland.
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Accepted for publication 9 November 2011.
Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a constraint to both potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. The hypothesis that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans is genotypically and phenotypically diverse and potentially subdivided based on host association was tested. A collection of isolates was analyzed using genotypic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA haplotype) and phenotypic markers (mating type, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity). The genotypic analysis revealed no polymorphism in 121 of 132 isolates of P. infestans tested. Only the Ia haplotype and the A2 mating type were detected. Most of the tested isolates were resistant to metalaxyl. The virulence testing showed variation among isolates of P. infestans. No evidence was found of population differentiation among potato and tomato isolates of P. infestans based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. We conclude that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans consists of a single clonal lineage (NI-1) which belongs to the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial DNA haplotype. Moreover, based on the markers used, this population of P. infestans does not resemble the population in countries from which potato seed is imported to Nicaragua or the population in neighboring countries. The data presented here indicate that the NI-1 clonal lineage is the primary pathogen on both potato and tomato, and its success on both host species is unique in a South American context.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society