N. C. Banks,
S. K. Singh, and
E. M. Matveeva
First and second authors: CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; third author: CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia; fourth author: Institute of Biology of Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya st. 11, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia.
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Accepted for publication 15 December 2011.
Rates and modes of dispersal of potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) were investigated. Analysis of records from eight countries suggested that PCNs spread a mean distance of 5.3 km/year radially from the site of first detection, and spread 212 km over ≈40 years before detection. Data from four countries with more detailed histories of invasion were analyzed further, using distance from first detection, distance from previous detection, distance from nearest detection, straight line distance, and road distance. Linear distance from first detection was significantly related to the time since the first detection. Estimated rate of spread was 5.7 km/year, and did not differ statistically between countries. Time between the first detection and estimated introduction date varied between 0 and 20 years, and differed among countries. Road distances from nearest and first detection were statistically significantly related to time, and gave slightly higher estimates for rate of spread of 6.0 and 7.9 km/year, respectively. These results indicate that the original site of introduction of PCNs may act as a source for subsequent spread and that this may occur at a relatively constant rate over time regardless of whether this distance is measured by road or by a straight line. The implications of this constant radial rate of dispersal for biosecurity and pest management are discussed, along with the effects of control strategies.
Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, invasive.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society