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Improved Resistance Against Botrytis cinerea by Grapevine-Associated Bacteria that Induce a Prime Oxidative Burst and Phytoalexin Production

July 2011 , Volume 101 , Number  7
Pages  768 - 777

Bas Verhagen, Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Philippe Jeandet, Fabienne Baillieul, and Aziz Aziz

First, second, and fifth authors: Plantes Pesticides & développement Durable, third author: Œnologie & Chimie Appliquée, and fourth author: Stress Defenses & reproduction des Plantes, URVVC–Stress & Environment EA 2069, University of Reims, F-51687 Reims cedex 2, France.

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Accepted for publication 10 March 2011.

Bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans (Pa-AF2), Bacillus subtilis (Bs-271), Acinetobacter lwoffii (Al-113), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CT2), originating from the vineyard, can induce defense responses and enhance resistance of grapevine against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The perception of these bacteria by plant cells or tissues in relation to their activities remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationships between the activity of each bacterium to induce or prime some defense responses, and its effectiveness to induce resistance in grapevine against B. cinerea. We showed that all selected bacteria are capable of inducing early oxidative burst and phytoalexin (trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin) production in grapevine cells and leaves. Pf-CT2 and Al-113 induced higher H2O2 and trans-resveratrol accumulations, and were able to further prime plants for accelerated phytoalexin production after B. cinerea challenge. These two bacteria were also the most effective in inducing local and systemic resistance. A similar level of induced resistance was observed with live Pa-AF2 which also induced but not primed a greater accumulation of trans-resveratrol. However, Bs-271, which was less effective in inducing resistance, induced a lower trans-resveratrol synthesis, without priming activity. Treatment of grapevine cells with growing medium or crude extract of the bacteria quickly and strongly enhanced oxidative burst compared with the live bacteria. However, both treatments resulted in comparable amounts of phytoalexins and induced local and systemic resistance to B. cinerea as compared with those induced by living bacteria, with extracts from Pf-CT2 and Al-113 being the most effective. Together, these results indicate that induced resistance can be improved by treatment with bacteria or derived compounds which induced or primed plants for enhanced phytoalexin accumulation.

Additional keywords: defense reactions, gray mold, ISR, Vitis vinifera.

© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society