Anatoly V. Lygin,
Curtis B. Hill,
Olga V. Zernova,
Jack M. Widholm,
Glen L. Hartman, and
Vera V. Lozovaya
First, second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh authors: Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801; and sixth author: United States Department of Agriculture--Agricultural Research Service and Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801.
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Accepted for publication 5 May 2010.
Plants recognize invading pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent invasion or inhibit colonization in plant cells. Enhancing this response in crop plants could improve sustainable methods to manage plant diseases. To enhance disease resistance in soybean, the soybean phytoalexin glyceollin was assessed in soybean hairy roots of two soybean genotypes, Spencer and PI 567374, transformed with either soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS2) or chalcone synthase (CHS6) genes that were inoculated with the soybean pathogens Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionales, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Phytophthora sojae. The hairy-root-transformed lines had several-fold decreased levels of isoflavone daidzein, the precursor of glyceollin, and considerably lower concentrations of glyceollin induced by pathogens measured 5 days after fungal inoculation compared with the nontransformed controls without phenolic transgenes. M. phaseolina, P. sojae, and S. sclerotiorum grew much more on IFS2- and CHS6-transformed roots than on control roots, although there was no significant difference in growth of D. phaseolorum var. meridionales on the transformed hairy-root lines. In addition, glyceollin concentration was lower in D. phaseolorum var. meridionales-inoculated transformed and control roots than roots inoculated with the other pathogens. Glyceollin inhibited the growth of D. phaseolorum var. meridionales, M. phaseolina, P. sojae, S. sclerotiorum, and three additional soybean pathogens: Cercospora sojina, Phialophora gregata, and Rhizoctonia solani. The most common product of glyceollin conversion or degradation by the pathogens, with the exception of P. sojae, which had no glyceollin degradation products found in the culture medium, was 7-hydroxyglyceollin.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2010