Yigal Cohen and
First author: The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; and second author: Syngenta Crop Protection, Research Biology, Stein CH-4332, Switzerland.
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Accepted for publication 24 April 2007.
Three carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides, mandipropamid (MPD), dimethomorph (DMM) and iprovalicarb (IPRO) were examined for their effects on various asexual developmental stages of Phytophthora infestans in vitro and in planta. Germination of cystospores and direct germination of sporangia were inhibited with nanomole concentrations of MPD (0.005 μg/ml) and micromole concentrations of DMM (0.05 μg/ml) or IPRO (0.5 μg/ml). A temporary exposure of 1 h to CAAs was not detrimental to germination and infectivity of sporangia or cystospores. CAAs applied to cystospores at 1 h after the onset of germination did not prevent the emergence of germ tubes, but inhibited their further growth and deformed their shape. None of the fungicides affected discharge of zoospores from sporangia or the encystment (cell wall formation/assembly) of the zoospores. Mycelium growth in solid or liquid media was inhibited with micromole concentrations. CAAs mixed with sporangia and drop inoculated onto detached leaves strongly suppressed infection. Curative application at 1 day postinoculation (dpi) required higher concentrations of CAAs than preventive application to inhibit infection and lost its effectiveness at 2 dpi. When sprayed on established late blight lesions 4 days after inoculation, CAAs reduced sporangial production in a dose-dependent manner. Trans-laminar protection of potato or tomato leaves, although achieved with higher doses, was more effective with MPD than with DMM or IPRO. Shade house studies demonstrated superior control of late blight epidemics by MPD compared with the other molecules. The data suggest that germ tube formation by cystospores or sporangia is the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of P. infestans to CAAs. Of the three CAAs, MPD had the highest intrinsic activity against spore germination. This property, together with its better trans-laminar activity, makes MPD more effective than DMM or IPRO in controlling epidemics caused by P. infestans.
Additional keywords:disease control, mandelic, oomycetes, valinamid carbamates.
© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society