First, second, and fourth authors: Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, 14080 Córdoba, Spain; and third and fifth authors: IAS-CSIC and Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos y Montes, Universidad de Córdoba, Apartado 3048, 14080 Córdoba, Spain
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Accepted for publication 16 January 2006.
A degree of genetic diversity may exist among Verticillium dahliae isolates within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) that bears phytopathological significance and is worth investigating using molecular tools of a higher resolution than VCG characterization. The molecular variability within and among V. dahliae VCGs was studied using 53 artichoke isolates from eastern-central Spain, 96 isolates from cotton, 7 from cotton soil, and 45 from olive trees in countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Isolates were selected to represent the widest available diversity in cotton- and olive-defoliating (D) and -nondefoliating (ND) pathotypes, as well as for VCG. The VCG of 96 cotton and olive isolates was determined in this present study. Molecular variability among V. dahliae isolates was assessed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for DNA fragments associated with the D (462 bp) and ND (824 bp) pathotypes, as well as a 334-bp amplicon associated with D pathotype isolates but also present in some VCG2B isolates. Isolates from cotton were in VCG1A, VCG1B, VCG2A, VCG2B, and VCG4B and those from olive trees were in VCG1A, VCG2A, and VCG4B. Artichoke isolates included representatives of VCG1A, VCG2A, VCG2B (including a newly identified VCG2Ba), and VCG4B. AFLP data were used to generate matrixes of genetic distance among isolates for cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining method and for analysis of molecular variance. Results demonstrated that V. dahliae isolates within a VCG subgroup are molecularly similar, to the extent that clustering of isolates correlated with VCG subgroups regardless of the host source and geographic origin. VCGs differed in molecular variability, with the variability being highest in VCG2B and VCG2A. For some AFLP/VCG subgroup clusterings, V. dahliae isolates from artichoke grouped in subclusters clearly distinct from those comprising isolates from cotton and olive trees. In addition, VCG2B isolates from artichoke formed two distinct clusters that correlated with PCR markers of 334 bp (VCG2B334) or 824 bp (VCG2B824). Artichoke isolates in the VCG2B334/2β334 cluster were molecularly similar to isolates of VCG1A. The molecular difference found among artichoke isolates in VCG2B correlates with virulence of isolates to artichoke and cotton cultivars demonstrated in a previous study.
© 2006 The American Phytopathological Society