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Latency- and Defense-Related Ultrastructural Characteristics of Apple Fruit Tissues Infected with Botryosphaeria dothidea

February 2001 , Volume 91 , Number  2
Pages  165 - 172

Ki Woo Kim , Eun Woo Park , Young Ho Kim , Kyung-Ku Ahn , Pan Gi Kim , and Kyung Soo Kim

First, second, and third authors: School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Suwon 441-744, Korea; fourth and fifth authors: National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Suwon 441-744, Korea; and sixth author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701

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Accepted for publication 23 October 2000.

Apple fruit tissues infected with Botryosphaeria dothidea were examined by transmission electron microscopy using susceptible cv. Fuji and resistant cv. Jonathan. Immature (green) and mature (red) fruits of cv. Fuji with restricted or expanding lesions were also examined to reveal subcellular characteristics related with latent and restricted disease development. In infected susceptible mature fruits, cytoplasmic degeneration and organelle disruption commonly occurred, accompanying cell wall dissolution around invading hyphae. Cell wall dissolution around invading hyphae in subepidermis was rare in immature, red halo-symptomed cv. Fuji and resistant cv. Jonathan fruits. In infected immature fruits of cv. Fuji, presumably at the latent state of disease development, cellular degeneration was less severe, and invading hyphae contained prominent microbody-lipid globule complexes or the deposition of thin electron-dense outer layer around cell wall of intercellular hyphae. Both mature fruits with red halos and resistant apple fruits formed cell wall protuberances at the outside of cell walls. In addition, electron-dense extramural layers were formed in the resistant apple fruits. Aberrant hyphal structures such as intrahyphal hyphae were found only in resistant fruit tissues, indicating the physiologically altered fungal growth. These ultrastructural changes of host tissues and fungal hyphae may reflect the pathogenesis of apple white rot under varying conditions of apple fruits.

Additional keywords: glyoxysomes , latent infection , Malus domestica , wall appositions .

© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society