First, second, third, and fourth authors: Biocontrol of Plant Diseases Laboratory; fifth author: Soybean and Alfalfa Research Laboratory; and sixth author: Weed Science Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705
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Accepted for publication 28 April 2000.
The fungus Pleospora papaveracea and Nep1, a phytotoxic protein from Fusarium oxysporum, were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Four treatments consisting of a control, P. papaveracea conidia, Nep1 (5 μg/ml), and P. papaveracea conidia plus Nep1 (5 μg/ml) were used in detached-leaf and whole-plant studies. Conidia of P. papaveracea remained viable for 38 days when stored at 20 or 4°C. Nep1 was stable in the presence of conidia for 38 days when stored at 4°C or for 28 days at 20°C. The presence of Nep1 did not affect conidia germination or appressoria formation. Nep1 was recovered from drops applied to opium poppy leaves in greenhouse and field studies 24 h after treatment. Opium poppy treated with the combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea had higher necrosis ratings than the other treatments. There were changes in the intercellular protein profiles, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and silver staining, due to application of treatments; the most intense occurred in response to the combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea. The combination of Nep1 and P. papaveracea enhanced the damage caused to opium poppy more than either component alone.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2000