First, second, and third authors: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology; and fourth author: USDA/ARS, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078
The effects of temperature and duration of wetness (relative humidity ≥95%) on infection of three peanut cultivars by Cercospora arachidicola were determined under controlled conditions. Plants of the Spanish cv. Spanco and the runner cvs. Florunner and Okrun were exposed to constant temperatures of 18 to 30°C during 12-h periods of wetness each day that totaled 12 to 84 h following inoculation of leaves with conidia. Severity of disease, measured by either lesion density (number per leaf) or lesion size (diameter), was greatest for ‘Spanco’, intermediate for ‘Florunner’, and lowest for ‘Okrun’ in each of two experiments. Lesion density was evaluated further because it was an indicator of both the occurrence and degree of infection. Nonlinear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the combined effects of temperature (T) and wetness duration (W) on lesion density (Y). In the regression model, the Weibull function characterized the monotonic increase of Y with respect to W, while a hyperbolic function characterized the unimodal response of Y with respect to T. Parameters for the intrinsic rate of change with respect to W (b), the intrinsic rate of change with respect to T (f), the optimal value of T (g), and the upper limit (e) when T is optimum (T = g) were estimated for each cultivar and experiment. The effect of cultivar was characterized primarily by differences in the upper limit parameter e. In each experiment, e was greatest for ‘Spanco’, intermediate for ‘Florunner’, and least for ‘Okrun’. The effect of cultivar on b followed a pattern similar to that for e in experiment 1, but not in experiment 2. Differences among cultivars for estimates of f and g were small and inconsistent. Estimates for g were precise for each cultivar and experiment and fell within the range of 22.3 to 23.2°C. Cultivar responses to T and W were further evaluated using data pooled over the two experiments. Parameter e was estimated for each cultivar, but common values of b, f, and g were estimated. At e = 22.8°C, lesion density approached an upper limit of 96, 17, and 6 lesions per leaf for the cvs. Spanco, Florunner, and Okrun, respectively. These fitted values approximated the observed values of 86, 25, and 9 lesions per leaf for the respective cultivars. Cultivars varied in their response to W at a given T. At 22.8°C, one lesion per leaf was expected following 26, 30, and 36 h of wetness for ‘Spanco’, ‘Florunner’, and ‘Okrun’, respectively. If temperature was increased to 28°C, one lesion per leaf was expected following 36, 44, and 54 h of wetness for the respective cultivars.