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Biotic, Molecular, and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bean Calico Mosaic Virus, a Distinct Begomovirus Species with Affiliation in the Squash Leaf Curl Virus Cluster

April 1999 , Volume 89 , Number  4
Pages  273 - 280

J. K. Brown , Kristin M. Ostrow , Ali M. Idris , and Drake C. Stenger

First and third authors: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721; and second and fourth authors: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb 60115

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Accepted for publication 7 January 1999.

Bean calico mosaic virus (BCMoV), a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus from Sonora, Mexico, was purified, and the genome components were cloned and sequenced. Purified viral fractions and cloned genome components were infectious by biolistic inoculation to bean, completing Koch's postulates for both. The B biotype of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci efficiently transmitted both native virus and progeny virus derived from cloned DNA inoculum. Host ranges of native virus and of progeny virus derived from cloned DNA were identical based upon whitefly and biolistic mediated transmission, respectively. BCMoV has a relatively wide experimental host range among begomoviruses known to infect bean, encompassing genera and species within the Fabaceae, Malvaceae, and Solanaceae. BCMoV has a bipartite genome, as do other New World begomoviruses. BCMoV DNA-A shared highest nucleotide sequence identities with squash leaf curl virus-E strain (SLCV-E) and cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCV) at 80.1 and 80.7%, respectively. BCMoV DNA-B shared highest nucleotide sequence identity with SLCV-E at 70.7%. The common region (CR) sequences of BCMoV and SLCV-E are 73 to 76% identical; however, modular cis-acting elements within the CR involved in replication origin function and recognition are 100% conserved. Phy-logenetic analysis indicated that BCMoV DNA-A shares a most recent common ancestor with the DNA-A of two viruses that also occur in the Sonoran Desert, SLCV-E and Texas pepper virus (TPV-TAM), and CaLCV from Florida. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that BCMoV DNA-B shares a most recent common ancestor with SLCV-E; whereas DNA-B of CaLCV clustered in a separate clade with pepper hausteco virus. Collectively, biological and molecular characteristics indicate that BCMoV is a distinct begomovirus species with the northernmost distribution of any begomovirus isolated from bean in the Americas. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships of begomovirus cognate components are not necessarily identical, suggesting that DNA-A and DNA-B of some begomoviruses may have different evolutionary histories.

Additional keywords: legume virus, Phaseolus virus , PAUP, virus taxonomy, whitefly-transmitted virus.

The American PhytopathologicalSociety, 1999