The roles of residue size and burial depth were assessed in the survival of Fusarium moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans in maize stalk residue. Stalk pieces (small or large sizes) were soaked in a spore suspension of F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, or F. subglutinans and placed in a field on the soil surface or buried at 15- or 30-cm depths. Residue pieces were recovered periodically, cultured on a selective medium, and microscopically examined for the presence of the inoculated Fusarium species. After 630 days, the inoculated Fusarium species were recovered from 0 to 50% of the inoculated stalk pieces in a long-term, continuous maize field, from 0 to 28% of the inoculated stalk pieces placed in a maize/soybean/oat rotation field, and from 0 to 25% of the noninoculated stalk pieces at both locations. Residue size and residue depth had significant effects on survival, but there were significant interactions among strain, depth, residue size, and time. Up to 343 days after placement in the field, survival of the three Fusarium species was not consistently different between buried residues and surface residues, but after 630 days, survival was greater from surface residues. Overall, fungus survival decreased more slowly in the surface residues than in the buried residues. Linear coefficients of determination ranged from 0.35 to 0.82 for the surface residues and from 0.81 to 0.98 for the buried residues. Decline in survival over time followed a more linear pattern in buried residues than in surface residues. Vegetative compatibility tests confirmed that F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans strains can survive at least 630 days in surface or buried maize residue. These results demonstrate that maize residue can act as a long-term source of inoculum for infection of maize plants by these three Fusarium species.