Link to home

Characterization of the Suppressiveness of Hairy Vetch-Amended Soils to Thielaviopsis basicola

February 1997 , Volume 87 , Number  2
Pages  197 - 202

B. L. Candole and C. S. Rothrock

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701

Go to article:
Accepted for publication 13 November 1996.

Factor(s) involved in soil suppressiveness to Thielaviopsis basicola when hairy vetch was used as a green manure were studied in a cotton production system. Soil suppressiveness was assessed in vitro at hairy vetch amendment levels of 0, 0.25, and 0.75% (wt/wt) by observing chlamydospores, using a nylon fabric technique. Chlamydospore germination in all soils was below 5%, and microscopic examination showed no germ tube lysis or visible propagule destruction. Viability (chlamydospore germination on T. basicola-carrot-etridiazol-nystatin [TB-CEN] medium) was reduced by 29% within 48 h after hairy vetch amendment. Viability also was reduced in atmospheres of amended soils, suggesting that the suppressiveness was due to a volatile factor. In a field study, chlamydospore viability in amended soils was reduced by 16%. T. basicola hyphal growth was more sensitive to ammonia than Rhizoctonia solani or Pythium ultimum, and chlamydospore mortality of T. basicola was 100% in petri dish atmospheres with 0.4 ppm of ammonia (50% lethal dose = 0.15 ppm). Soil atmospheric ammonia was 0.08 and 0.10 ppm for 0.25 and 0.75% amendment levels, respectively, both at 3 and 7 days after incorporation. In the field, 0.11 and 0.14 ppm of ammonia were detected in soil atmospheres 3 and 7 days after incorporation, respectively. The levels of ammonia detected were sufficient to account for the loss in T. basicola chlamydospore viability, indicating that ammonia is responsible for the suppressiveness observed.

Additional keywords: cover crops.

© 1997 The American Phytopathological Society