Massimo Delledonne,1 and
1Biotechnology Department, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy; 2Laboratory of Defense in Plant–Pathogen Interactions, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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Accepted 2 November 2012.
Sequential recognition of invading microbes and rapid induction of plant immune responses comprise at least two recognition systems. Early basal defenses are initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in the plasma membrane. Pathogens produce effectors to suppress defense but plants, in turn, can sense such effectors by dominant plant resistance (R) gene products. Plant PRR and R proteins modulate signaling networks for defense responses that rely on rapid production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) mainly mediates biological function through chemical reactions between locally controlled accumulation of RNS and proteins leading to potential alteration of protein function. Many proteins specifically regulated by NO and participating in signaling during plant defense response have been identified, highlighting the physiological relevance of these modifications in plant immunity. ROS function independently or in cooperation with NO during defense, modulating the RNS signaling functions through the entire process. This review provides an overview of current knowledge about regulatory mechanisms for NO burst and signaling, and crosstalk with ROS in response to pathogen attack.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society