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Expression of α-DIOXYGENASE 1 in Tomato and Arabidopsis Contributes to Plant Defenses Against Aphids

August 2013 , Volume 26 , Number  8
Pages  977 - 986

Carlos Augusto Avila,1 Lirio Milenka Arevalo-Soliz,1 Argelia Lorence,2,3 and Fiona L. Goggin1

1Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, U.S.A.; 2Arkansas Biosciences Institute, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72401, U.S.A.; 3Department of Chemistry and Physics, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72401, U.S.A.

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Accepted 18 April 2013.

Plant α-dioxygenases (α-DOX) are fatty acid–hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of compounds primarily generated through oxidation of linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here that the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) induces Slα-DOX1 but not Slα-DOX2 expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Slα-DOX1 upregulation by aphids does not require either jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, since tomato mutants deficient in JA (spr2, acx1) or SA accumulation (NahG) still show Slα-DOX1 induction. Virus-induced gene silencing of Slα-DOX1 enhanced aphid population growth in wild-type (WT) plants, revealing that Slα-DOX1 contributes to basal resistance to aphids. Moreover, an even higher percent increase in aphid numbers occurred when Slα-DOX1 was silenced in spr2, a mutant line characterized by elevated LA levels, decreased LNA, and enhanced aphid resistance as compared with WT. These results suggest that aphid reproduction is influenced by oxylipins synthesized from LA by Slα-DOX1. In agreement with our experiments in tomato, two independent α-dox1 T-DNA insertion mutant lines in Arabidopsis thaliana also showed increased susceptibility to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating that the role α-DOX is conserved in other plant-aphid interactions.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society