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A Transgenic Mutant of Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) with a T-DNA Tightly Linked to Loss of Downy Mildew Resistance

November 1997 , Volume 10 , Number  8
Pages  970 - 977

Patricia A. Okubara , Rosa Arroyo-Garcia , Katherine A. Shen , Marianne Mazier , Blake C. Meyers , Oswaldo E. Ochoa , Shinje Kim , Chang-Hsien Yang , and Richard W. Michelmore

Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis 95616, U.S.A.

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Accepted 14 August 1997.

One hundred and ninety-two independent primary transformants of lettuce cv. Diana were obtained by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying constructs containing maize Ac transposase and Ds. R2 families were screened for mutations at four genes (Dm) for resistance to downy mildew. One family, designated dm3t524, had lost resistance to an isolate of Bremia lactucae expressing the avirulence gene Avr3. Loss of resistance segregated as a single recessive allele of Dm3. The mutation was not due to a large deletion as all molecular markers flanking Dm3 were present. Loss of Dm3 activity co-segregated with a T-DNA from which Ds had excised. Genomic DNA flanking the right border of this T-DNA was isolated by inverse polymerase chain reaction. This genomic sequence was present in four to five copies in wild-type cv. Diana. One copy was missing in all eight deletion mutants of Dm3 and altered in dm3t524, indicating tight physical linkage to Dm3. Three open reading frames (ORFs) occurred in a 6.6-kb region flanking the insertion site; however, expression of these ORFs was not detected. No similarities were detected between these ORFs and resistance genes cloned from other species. Transgenic complementation with 11-to 27-kb genomic fragments of Diana spanning the insertion site failed to restore Dm3 function to two ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants of Dm3 or to cv. Cobham Green, which naturally lacks Dm3 activity. Therefore, either the T-DNA inserted extremely close to, but not within, Dm3 and the mutation may have been caused by secondary movement of Ds, or Dm3 activity is encoded by a gene extending beyond the fragments used for complementation.

Additional keywords: disease resistance.

© 1997 The American Phytopathological Society