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Supplemental Information and References

Supplementary information:


Carroll, J. E. 1994. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology, National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), Reston, VA. Experiment D. Plant Parasitic Nematodes from Soil", pages 62 to 65, contains other useful tips for extracting nematodes from soil and examining them under the microscope.

Schumann, G. L. 1991. Plant Diseases: Their Biology and Social Impact, APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Chapter 8, "Soil, The Rhizosphere, and Soilborne Pathogens", pages 181-208, is a good general source of information about the soil-plant root environment in which many plant-parasitic nematodes live as well as information about the agricultural practices used to control nematodes.

Schumann, G. L. and C.J. D’Arcy. 2006. Essential Plant Pathology. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Chapter 4, "What are the causes of plant diseases? Nematodes”, pages 67-84.


1. Plant and Insect Parasitic Nematodes Homepage

This is the main clearinghouse for information on plant and insect parasitic nematodes at the University of Nebraska:

Two of the many features that may interest you are:

“Interactive Diagnostic Key to Plant-Parasitic, Freeliving and Predaceous Nematodes” by Allen Szalanski
You can use this key to try to identify the nematodes that you find.

“Nematodes of Konza Prairie”
This section contains photomicrographs of and detailed information about many different species of nematodes, including plant parasites, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators.

2. Plant Parasitic Nematodes by Kathy Merrifield (Oregon State University) and Ben Muir (Lewis and Clark College)

This site includes information on plant-parasitic nematodes and the diseases they cause on important crops in Oregon, an easy-to-use key for identifying plant-parasitic nematodes, some excellent photomicrographs of free-living nematodes, as well as the Nematode Songbook.

3. APSnet Education Center Plant Disease Lessons 

Lesion Nematode​​

Soybean Cyst Nematode
Pine Wilt Nematode
Root-Knot Nematode​​

Sting Nematode


Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology, 5th Ed., Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 15: "Plant diseases caused by nematodes", pp.​825-874.

Esnard, J. 2000. Implications of sequencing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome for plant nematology. APSnet Feature

Hussey, R. S., and E. C. Bernard. 1975. Soil-inhabiting nematodes. American Biology Teacher April:224-227.

Polz, M. F., J.A. Ott, M. Bright, and C.M. Cavanaugh 2000. When Bacteria Hitch a Ride. ASM News 66: 531-539.

Sayre, R.M. 1994. Art in Phytopathology: Portfolio of Nathan A. Cobb, Nematologist. APS Press. St. Paul, MN.

Viglierchio, D. R. 1991. The World of Nematodes. University of California, Davis, CA