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Genetic Variability of Natural Populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in Pacific Northwest Vineyards

July 2010 , Volume 100 , Number  7
Pages  698 - 707

Sridhar Jarugula, Olufemi J. Alabi, Robert R. Martin, and Rayapati A. Naidu

First, second, and fourth authors: Department of Plant Pathology, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser 99350; and third author: United States Department of Agriculture--Agricultural Research Service Horticulture Crops Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 97330.

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Accepted for publication 8 March 2010.

Genetic variability of field populations of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) in Pacific Northwest (PNW) vineyards was characterized by sequencing the entire coat protein (CP) and a portion of the heat-shock protein-70 homolog (HSP70h) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of CP and HSP70h nucleotide sequences obtained in this study and corresponding sequences from GenBank revealed segregation of GLRaV-2 isolates into six lineages with virus isolates from PNW distributed in ‘PN’, ‘H4’, and ‘RG’ lineages. An estimation of the ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site indicated that different selection pressures may be acting on the two genomic regions encoding proteins with distinct functions. Multiple alignments of CP amino acid sequences showed lineage-specific differences. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results indicated that GLRaV-2-specific antibodies from a commercial source are unable to reliably detect GLRaV-2 isolates in the RG lineage, thereby limiting antibody-based diagnosis of all GLRaV-2 isolates currently found in PNW vineyards. A protocol based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed for differentiating GLRaV-2 isolates belonging to the three lineages present in the region. The taxonomic status of GLRaV-2 is discussed in light of the current knowledge of global genetic diversity of the virus.

© 2010 The American Phytopathological Society