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Dual dissection of fungi effectors and plant susceptibility factors reveals new candidate genes involved in the wheat/Fusarium graminearum interaction

Ludovic Bonhomme: University of Clermont Auvergne

<div><span lang="en-US">Coordinated actions of microbial effectors and host-susceptibility factors are key determinants of disease development, promoting pathogen growth and spreading in plant tissues. In the wheat/</span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fusarium graminearum</i></span><span lang="en-US"> (</span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US">) interaction determining the </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fusarium</i></span><span lang="en-US"> head blight (FHB) disease, these primary players of plant susceptibility are still widely unknown despite their great potential to guide original breeding programs. </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US"> effectors and host susceptibility factors were investigated using high resolution dual proteomics in the grains of a susceptible wheat cultivar and over four early FHB infection stages (24 to 96 hpi). The abundance of about 5,800 wheat proteins were profiled along with that of nearly 1,100 </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US"> proteins including more than 100 predicted effectors according to EffectorP. The amounts of about 1,000 wheat proteins were significantly regulated during early stages of FHB and the abundance of nearly 200 </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US"> proteins, including 9 effectors, was changed independently of the fungal biomass progress. Interestingly, mRNA quantity did not correlate with the abundance of part of the effectors suggesting their earlier accumulation during spore development. A co-occurring molecular remodeling was evidenced in both wheat and </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US"> between 48hpi and 72hpi depicting two distinct steps. These were characterized by specific molecular events shaping both initial infection and </span><span lang="en-US"><i>Fg</i></span><span lang="en-US"> spreading in plant tissues evidencing putative susceptibility factors.</span></div>