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Developing of new multi rust resistant bread wheat cultivar “Maaroof” for irrigated and rain-fed zones of Iraq

Emad Al-Maaroof: College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani,

<div>Rust diseases are the most critical grain yield-limiting factor of wheat in Iraq. Breeding for rust resistance is the most sustainable strategy to reduce yield losses. The present study represents a long term breeding program for developing a new multi resistant bread wheat cultivar to brown, yellow, and stem rust diseases. Following designation of R-30 as a source of resistance to the three rusts; it was successfully introduced in a breeding program with Tamuz 2 using the pedigree method in 1997. The progenies of three successive generations (F3-F5) were screened to the three rusts under artificial inoculation conditions at adult plant stage in Twaitha. Out of 135 hybrid lines, 12 promising lines were selected. The selected lines were introduced in comprehensive evaluation test for yield potential and response to rusts and bunt diseases in different locations. As a result, the promising line “63” was selected due to its high grain yield in the presence and absence of rusts and bunt diseases. Yield potential of the genotype is 10-19% higher than the local commercial cultivars Araz and Tamuz 2. Maaroof was registered and released as a new cultivar with high yield potential and multi resistance to rusts and bunt diseases by the National Committee of Registration and Release of Agricultural Cultivars/Iraqi ministry of agriculture according to order no. 40 in 30/10/2014. Great emphasis was conducted on multiplication and delivering the seeds to farmers. Yield potential of Maaroof on farm scale was 3750 and 4750 Kg/H under rain-fed and irrigated conditions respectively.</div>