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Ackerman, J. 2002. Food: How safe? How altered? National Geographic 201(5):2-50 [May 2002] As is typical for National Geographic, stunningly informative and beautiful photographs illustrate this comprehensive article on food safety. The "how altered?" section offers current and balanced insights.

Andrews, J. H. 1980. Plant disease as a biological phenomenon. BioScience 30(10):647. This is the lead Opinion piece in an issue of Bioscience devoted to integrated pest management. The articles by W. E. Fry and H. D. Thurston and by G. W. Bird and I. J. Thomason are directly pertinent to plant pathology.

Austin, M. J., P. Muskett, K. Kahn, B. J. Feys, J. D. G. Jones, and J. E. Parker. 2002. Regulatory role of SGT1 in early R gene-mediated plant defenses. Science 295:2077-2080. Data reported in this paper imply operationally distinct but cooperative functions of SGT1 and RAR1 in plant disease resistance.

Azevedo, C., A. Sadanandom, K. Kitagawa, A. Freialdenhoven, K. Shirasu, and P. Schylze-Lefert. 2002. The RAR1 interactor SGT1, a essential component of R gene-triggered disease resistance. Science 295:2073-2076 [March 15, 2002]. This paper reports plant disease resistance genes that converge on RAR1 in their signaling pathways.

Baskin, Y. 1998. Trouble at Timberline. Natural History 107(9):50-55. The current status of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in the western forests.

Bechinger, C., K.-F. Giebel, M. Schnell, P. Leiderer, H.B. Deising, and M. Bastmeyer. 1999. Optical measurements of invasive forces exerted by appressoria of a plant pathogenic fungus. Science 285:1896-1899. [September 17, 1999] A method using elastic optical waveguides showed that the force exerted by appressoria of Colletotrichum graminicola was about 17 micronewtons. See also the Perspectives article by Talbot.

Blackwell, M. 2000. Terrestrial life - fungal from the start. Science 289(5486):1884-5. The role of fungi as early terrestrial life forms is considered.

Brown, J.K.M. 2003. Little else but parasites. Science 299:1680-1681. Issues raised by Thrall and Burdon are further addressed in this Perspectives paper.

Brown, K. 2001. Genetically modified foods: are they safe? Scientific American 284(4):50-57. This is a summary of scientific research on the safety of genetically modified foods.

Burke, J.M. and L.H. Riseberg. 2003. Fitness effects of transgenic disease resistance in sunflowers. Science 300:1250. [May 23, 2003] This paper examines the ecological fitness effects of an oxalate oxidase transgene conferring resistance to white mold in sunflower. See also the Perspectives article by Heritage.

Choi, G. H. and D. L. Nuss. 1992. Hypovirulence of chestnut blight fungus conferred by an infectious viral cDNA. Science 257:800-803. [August 7, 1992] The results reported in this paper establish viral double-stranded RNA as the causal agent of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica.

Diener, T.O. 1981. Viroids. Scientific American 244(1):66-73. The story of the discovery and early research on viroids.

Diener, T. O. 1982. Viroids: minimal biological systems. BioScience 32(1):38-44. This article is a concise summary of the early research on viroids and the diseases that they cause.

Garelik, G. 2002. Taking the bite out of potato blight. Science 298(5599):1702-1704. [November 29, 2002] This article summarizes the work of the Global Initiative on Late Blight.

Guttman, D. S., B. A. Vinatzer, S. F. Sarkar, M. V. Ranall, G. Kettler, and J. T. Greenberg. 2002. A functional screen for the type III (Hrp) secretome of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Science 295:1722-1726 [March 1, 2002]. An in vivo genetic screen was used to identify 13 effectors secreted by Pseudomonas syringae.

Hancock, J.F. 2003. A framework for assessing the risk of transgenic crops. Bioscience 53(5):512-519. The author contents that the environmental risks of many transgenic crops can be evaluated by using already available information.

Harvell, C.D., C. E. Mitchell, J.R. Ward, S. Altizer, A. P. Dobson, R.S. Ostfeld, and M.D. Samuel. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296(5576):2158-2162. [June 21, 2002] This comprehensive review article considers the impacts of climate changes on plant diseases.

Heritage, J. 2003. Super sunflowers - stopping the rot? Science 300:1243-1244. This Perspectives article further explores the issues raised in the article by Burke and Riseberg.

Hines, P. J,Marx, J. et al. The endless race between plant and pathogen. Science 292(5525):2269-2289. This cover story from the June 22, 2001, issue of Science contains six articles describing the current state of several areas of research in plant pathology.

Insight Review Articles on Plant Defense from the journal Nature, June, 2001-411:825-868.

Kruger, J., C.M. Thomas, C. Goldstein, M.S. Dixon, M. Smoker, S. Tang, L. Mulder and J.D.G. Jones. 2002. A tomato cysteine protease required for Cf-2-dependent resistance and suppression of autonecrosis. Science 296(5568):744-747. [April 26, 2002] The Rcr3 gene encodes a secreted papain-like cysteine endoprotease and is specifically required for the function of Cf-2, a Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium gene bred into cultivated tomato for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum.

Lamb, C. 1996. A ligand-receptor mechanism in plant-pathogen recognition. Science 274:2038-2039. [December 20, 1996]. This is a Perspectives article on the papers by Tang et al. and Scofield et al.

Madden, L. V. and F. van den Bosch. 2002. A population-dynamics approach to assess the threat of plant pathogens as biological weapons against annual crops. Bioscience 52(1):65-75 [January 2002]. A coupled differential-equation model is used to show the conditions that are necessary for long-term persistence of a plant disease after a pathogenic microorganism is introduced into a susceptible annual crop.

Marvier, M. 2001. Ecology of transgenic crops. American Scientist 89(2):160-167. The article presents a clear analysis of some of the problems involved in measuring some of the risks associated with transgenic crops.

McCoy, R. E. 1988. What's killing the palm trees? National Geographic 174(1): 120-130. A beautifully illustrated article about the epidemic of lethal yellowing of palm trees in the Western Hemisphere.

Meisler, S. 1999. A masterpiece born of St. Anthony's fire. Smithsonian 30(6):70-76. A description and history of a massive altarpiece that played  important mystical and psychological roles in the treatment of ergotism.

Moffat, A.S. 1999. Geminiviruses emerge as serious crop threat. Science 286: 1835. The worldwide spread and potential impact of geminiviruses are described.

Nelson, R. 1998. The blight is back. Scientific American. 278(2)20-26. This article reviews the re-emergence of late blight of potato in the United States.

Nishimura, M. and S. Somerville. 2002. Resisting attack. Science 295:2032-2033 [March 15, 2002]. This article is a perspective on those by Azevedo et al. and Austin et al. that appear in the same issue.

Nishimura, M. T., M. Stein, B-H. Hou, J. P. Vogel, H. Edwards, and S. C. Somerville. 2003. Loss of a callose synthase results in salicylic acid-dependent disease resistance. Science. 301(5635):969-972. The deposition of callose at pathogen attack wound sites is not required for disease resistance; negative regulation of the salicylic acid pathway by callose or callose synthase may be a factor in disease resistance.

Marchand, P. J. 2000. Life on a leaf. Natural History 109(4):70 - 73. A brief and highly informative introduction to fungal ecology of leaves.

Palevitz, B.A. 2002. Researchers blast open pathogen genome. The Scientist 16(16)24-29. [August 19, 2002]; also available at This article presents an overview of rice blast and the importance of the sequencing of the genome of Magnaporthe grisea, the fungal pathogen that causes the disease.

Redecker, D., R. Kodner and L.E. Graham. 2000. Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician. Science 289(5486):1920-21. Clear fossil fungi from the Ordovician are reported.

Ritter, S.K. 2001. Accepting the green challenge. Chemical and Engineering News 79(27):24-28. (July 2, 2001) EDEN Bioscience receives a Green Chemistry Award for the development of Messenger, a nontoxic natural protein that stimulates innate defense systems in more than 40 groups of crops to help protect against pests and disease.

Ritter, S.K. 2003. Green rewards. Chemical and Engineering News 81(26):30-35. [June 30, 2003] AgraQuest Inc. received a Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award for developing Serenade, the first broad-spectrum biofungicide.

Rogers, P., S. Whitby and M. Dando. 1999. Biological warfare against crops. Scientific American 280(6):70 - 75. Plant pathogens as agents of biological warfare.

Rossman, A.Y. 2001. A special issue on global movement of invasive plants and fungi. Bioscience 51(2):93-153. Eight articles covering a range of topics on introduction and dispersal of plants and fungal plant pathogens constitute this special issue of Bioscience.

Schumann, G.L. and C. J. D'Arcy. 1999. Plant Pathology Courses for Agricultural Awareness. Plant Disease 83:492-501.

Scofield, S.R., C.M. Tobias, J.P. Rathjen, J.H. Chang, D.T. Lavelle, R.W. Michelmore and B.J. Staskawicz. 1996. Molecular basis for gene-for-gene specificity in bacterial speck disease of tomato. Science 274:2063-2065. [December 20, 1996] Transient expression of the avrPto avirulence gene resulted in a Pto-dependent necrosis in plant cells. See also the Perspectives paper by Lamb.

Shao, F., C. Golstein, J. Ade, M. Stoutemeyer, J. E. Dixon, and R. W. Innes. 2003. Cleavage of Arabidopsis PBS1 by a bacterial Type III effector. Science 301(5637):1230-1233. Cleavage of the protein kinase PBS1 by AvrPphB of Pseudomonas syringae is required for disease resistance.

Shouse, B. 2003. Plant pathologists at the center of a circus: a devastating oak disease has reshaped two scientists' careers. Science 300:418-419 [April 18, 2003]. This article describes Matteo Garbelotto and David Rizzo's work on Sudden Oak Death.

Sommer, Robert. 1995. Why I continue to eat corn smut. Natural History 194(1):18-22 (January 1995). Maize infected with corn smut caused by Ustaligo maydis is a key ingredient in huitlacoche in Mexican cuisine. This brief article combines popular culinary anthropology with scientific information.

Song, J., J. M. Bradeen, S. K. Naess, J. A. Raasch, S. M. Wielgus, G. T. Haberlach, J. Liu. H. Kuang, S. Austin-Phillips, C. R. Buell, J. Pl Helgeson, and J. Jiang. 2003. Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 100(16):9128-9133. Cloning of a major resistance gene to the most devastating potato disease in the world is reported.

Talbot, N.J. 1999. Forcible entry. Science 285:1860-1861. [September 17, 1999] This Perspectives article offers further insight into the paper by Bechinger, et al.

Taler, D., M. Galperin, I. Benjamin, Y. Cohen and D. Kenigsbuch. 2004. Plant eR genes that encode photorespiratory enzymes confer resistance against disease. Plant Cell 16:172-184. Enzymatic resistance genes encoding the photorespiratory peroxisomal enzyme proteins glyoxylate aminotransferases control resistance to downy mildew.

Tang, X., R.D. Frederick, J. Zhou, D.A. Halterman, Y. Jia, and G.B. Martin. 1996. Initiation of plant disease resistance by physical interaction of AvrPto and Pto kinase. Science 274:2060-2063. [December 20, 1996] The physical interaction of the AvrPto protein and the Pto kinase provides an explanation of gene-for-gene specificity in bacterial speck disease resistance. See also the Perspectives paper by Lamb.

Thrall, P.H. and J.J. Burdon. 2003. Evolution of virulence in a plant host-pathogen metapopulation. Science 299:1735-1737. [March 14, 2003] Data presented in this paper imply that selection favors virulent strains of Melamspora lini in resistant Linum marginale populations and avirulent strains in susceptible populations. See also the Perspectives paper by Brown.

Walton, J. 2002. Coming clean with plant disease suppression. Bioscience 52(10)873-874. This Viewpoint piece speculates on the roles that secondary metabolites may have in allowing successful pathogens and symbionts to suppress the defenses of their hosts.

Wei, Z.-M., R.J. Laby, C.H. Zumoff, D.W. Bauer, S.Y. He, A. Collmer, and S.V. Beer. 1992. Harpin, elicitor of the hypersensitive response produced by the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Science 257:85-88 [July 3, 1992] This paper reports the isolation of a proteinaceous elicitor of the hypersensitive reaction from the bacterium that causes fir blight of pear, apple and other rosaceous plants.

Wheelis, M., R. Casagrande, and L. Madden. 2002. Biological attack on agriculture: low-tech, high-impact bioterrorism. Bioscience 52(7):569-576. [July, 2002] This article is an overview of the vulnerability of the United States to agricultural bioterrorism and biocrimes; it is the lead article in a special section on these topics in this issue.

Wheelright, J. 1996. The berry and the poison. Smithsonian 27(9):40-51. This article discusses issues surrounding the use of methyl bromide to control Verticillium wilt in strawberry fields near Monterey Bay, California.

Wilkinson, M. J., L. J. Elliot, J. Allainguillaume, M. W. Shaw, C. Norris, R. Welters, M. Alexander, J. Sweet an D.C. Mason. 2003. Hybridization between Brassica napus and B. rapa on a national scale in the United Kingdon. Science 302(5644):457-459; see also the Perspectives article: Heritage, J. 2003. Will GM rapeseed cut the mustard? Science 302(5644):401-403. Quantitative risk assessment of gene flow between oilseed rape and it wild relative is explored in these articles.

Wolkomir, R. 1998. Racing to revive our embattled elms. Smithsonian 29(3):40 - 49. This is a clearly written and informative description of efforts to save American elm tress from Dutch elm disease.

Yarnell, A. 2002. A global view of plant science. Chemical and Engineering News 80(30):29-34. [July 29, 2002] This article is an overview of research done at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri. Plant Pathologist Roger Beachy is President of the Danforth Center and directs work that is aimed at addressing worldwide problems.


Avery, D.T. 1995. Saving the Planet with Pesticides and Plastic. Hudson Institute. Indianapolis, IN. This book presents many interesting facts and references to support the use of high input agriculture on the most productive land as the most efficient way to produce food and maintain wildlife and biodiversity. Certain to stimulate class discussions.

Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology. Elsevier-Academic Press. One of the current introductory textbooks in plant pathology.

Brock, T. D. (ed.) 1999. Milestones in Microbiology: 1546 to 1940. ASM Press. Washington, D.C. An outstanding collection of translations of papers that are major importance in the history of microbiology.

Carefoot, G.L. and E.R. Sprott. 1967. Famine on the Wind. Rand McNally & Company. A fascinating and highly readable treatment of the social, political and biological stories of the most famous plant disease epidemics.

Charles, D. 2001. Lords of the harvest: biotech, big money and the future of food. Perseus Publishing, 348 pp. ISBN 0-7382-0291-6 More of a collection of stories than an argument, this book offers several perspectives on agricultural biotechnology.

Creager, A.N.H. 2002. The life of a virus: tobacco mosaic virus as an experimental model, 1930-1965. University of Chicago Press, 412 pp. ISBN 0-226-12025-2; also available in paperback ISBN 0-226-12026-0. The numerous "firsts" in the career of tobacco mosaic virus are presented as a rich portrait of practices of twentieth century life science.

Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Norton & Co.. New York, NY. An evaluation of how the presence of plants and animals that could be domesticated and the environment of early people played key roles in the development of civilization in various regions of the world.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Crops and Man. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, WI. An interesting report on some of the most important food crops and their influence on history.

Hudler, G.W. 1998. Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. An entertaining and accurate treatment of the role of fungi in our lives written expressly for nonscience students.

Keller, E.F. 1983. A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintock. W.H. Freeman & Co. New York, NY. A wonderful portrait of an extraordinary scientist. It examines the human side of her life as a scientist as well as the difficult circumstances in which she had to work because of her sex. Includes readable accounts of her Nobel Prize winning work in genetics.

Large, E.C. 1962. The Advance of the Fungi. Dover Publications, New York NY. The classic account of the early days of plant pathology and microbiology. Written in the expressive language of old science.

Lucas, J. A. and C. H. Dickinson. 1998. Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens. Blackwell Science, Inc. Oxford, UK. One of the current introductory textbooks in plant pathology.

Lurquin, P.F. 2002. High Tech Harvest: Understanding Genetically Modified Food Plants. Westview (Perseus), Boulder, CO. The author pres​​ents an interesting and even-handed overview of the development of the technology and issues surrounding genetically modified food.

Maloy, O.C. and Murray, T.D. 2000. Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology. John Wiles and Sons. New York, NY. This volume contains an excellent compilation of short articles with photographs and drawings and key references for the major terms, concepts, plant diseases and historical scientists of plant pathology.

Matossian, M.K. 1989. Poisons of the Past: Molds, Epidemics, and History. Yale University Press. New Haven CT. Matossian is an historian who has studied the connections between mycotoxins and ergot in the diet to witchcraft, the French Revolution and historical birth rates in Europe.

Mayle, P. 1991. Toujours Provence (Chapter 7 on truffle hunting). Vintage Books. New York, NY. Essentially a travel book, the chapter on truffle hunting will interest students.

Morris, J. and R. Bate (eds.) 1999. Fearing Food: Risk, Health & Environment. Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers. Woburn, MA. The effects of the new agricultural and food technologies, including genetically engineered seed, on health and the environment. Useful in class discussions about the relative impact of intensive farming and population growth on the environment.

National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. National Academy Press. Washington D.C. A detailed analytical summary by a panel of distinguished scientists on what is known and not known about carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the diet. Many useful references.

Noyd, R. K. 2000. Mycology Reference Cards. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. This set of eight laminated and three-hole punched cards summarizes the major fungal groups with their key features, over 200 mycological terms and a glossary for quick reference.

Postgate, J. 1992. Microbes and Man. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K. A classic account of the role of microorganisms in human history with an emphasis on medically-important species.

Schumann, G.L. 1991. Plant Diseases: Their Biology and Social Impact. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. This textbook was written expressly for the general education plant pathology course taught at the University of Massachusetts.

Ulloa, M. and Hanlin, R.T. 2000. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. This is a clear, extensive dictionary with many photographs and illustrations.

Viglierchio, D.R. 1991. The World of Nematodes. University of California. Davis, CA. A very readable account of the many roles of nematodes in the world with an emphasis on animal and plant parasites.

Books on the Irish Potato Famine:

Barrett, Andrea. 1996. Ship Fever and Other Stories. W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. 256 pp. ISBN 0-393-31600-9 This book is a collection of novellas telling the experiences of immigrants, physicians and town's people at the Grosse Ile ImmigrationStation in Canada during the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52.

O Grada, Cormac. 2000. Black '47 andBeyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economics and Memory. Princeton University Press. 272 pp. ISBN 0-691-07015-6 Ireland's premier economic historian and one of the leading authorities on the Great Irish Famine examines the most lethal disaster to strike Europe in the nineteenth century.

Poirteir, Cathal. 1997. The Great Irish Famine. Dufour Editions, Incorporated. 283 pp. ISBN 0-8023-1316-7 This account considers the Famine from the perspective of the peasants who were dependent on the potato and the landlords who were forced to decide between staying solvent or providing for their workers.

Woodham-Smith, C. 1962. The Great Hunger. Harper and Row. New York, NY. An historical account of the Irish potato famine. Very little biology of late blight is described, but the human tragedy and its political and social causes are well described.

Videotapes, DVDs, and CD-Roms:

Big Fears, Little Risks. 1989. Narrated by Walter Cronkite. American Council on Science and Health. Film Counselors Associates, Inc. 447 W. 45th St., New York NY 10036. This video gives perspective to the exaggerated fears of health effects of industrial contaminants in the environment. An excellent film to stimulate discussion because it is contrary to most reports in the mass media.

The Biology of Fungal Pathogens, volume 1. 2002. J-A. Verreet and H. Klink. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Using a fusion of three-dimensional computer generated animation and photography, dynamic and visually stunning presentations of the life cycles of fungal plant pathogens are presented in this videotape.

Dutch Elm Disease and the American Elm. Eastburn, D.M., C.J. D'Arcy and L. McKee. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. A video designed especially for students in general education plant pathology courses. It addresses the history of the introduced fungus that killed millions of elms, attempts to control the epidemics, and how the monoculture of elms along city streets contributed to spread of the disease.

Fungi: The Rotten World About Us. 1981. BBC Bristol Natural History Unit. Films Incorporated Video. 5547 Ravenswood. Ave. Chicago, IL 60640. A video that covers nearly every important role of fungi from the late blight epidemic to mycotoxins to mycorrhizae in a colorful and entertaining way.

Harvest of Fear, 2001. A Nova/Frontline Special Report, this is a great resource about the discussion on genetically negineered foods. It can be used for high school, college and advanced courses. The following link,, povides access to teacher resources for the video, which includes a link to purchase the video.

Late Blight and the Irish Potato Famine. 1996. Eastburn, D.M. and C.J. D'Arcy. APS Press. St. Paul, MN. A video designed especially for students in general education plant pathology courses. It addresses the biology as well as the social and political history behind the Irish potato famine and the birth of plant pathology and the germ theory.

Of the Earth: Agriculture and the New Biology.1988. Industrial Biotechnology Association. Venard Films, Ltd. East Peoria, IL 61611. A video that addresses some of the fears people have about biotechnology. Several scientists discuss why the new methods are important, and the basics of genetic engineering using Agrobacterium tumefaciens are demonstrated. Although a little dated, it is a useful introduction to class discussion.

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, 1992. The American Experience. PBS Videos.1320 Braddock Pl., Alexandria VA 22314. A portrait of Rachel Carson, the individual, and the concerns about pesticides that played a key role in the beginning of the environmental movement. Useful to stimulate class discussions.

Seeds for Tomorrow. 1985. Nova Program. Coronet Film and Video. 420 Academy Dr. Northbrook IL 60062. This video addresses the issue of the loss of genetic resources, especially those of crop plants in their centers of origins. On-site film from around the world portrays the very human side of the future of our crop plants and food supply.

"Witches Curse" 2001. This first episode of the series "Secrets of the Dead II" theorizes about the role of ergotism in the Salem Witch trials of 1692. Read background information, an interview with behavioral psychologist Linnda Caporael, get links to other resources and order the videotape at

World Population. 1990. Zero Population Growth, Inc. 1400 16th Street, N.W., Suite 320, Washington, D.C. 20036. A video that explores the issue of population growth.


Comprehensive Websites

All of the botanical image collections of the University of Wisconsin System can be accessed through their image library at

All the virology that is on the World Wide Web:

The Big Picture Book of Viruses offers an easily searchable archive of images of many viruses, including plant pathogens.

Concise, accurate descriptions of plant viruses (including many excellent electron micrographs and other illustrations) are available at

Internet Scout Project: Plant Diseases
Useful websites on plant pathology, plant disease diagnostics

An outstanding collection of information ranging from photo galleries to molecular diagnostics for plant and insect parasitic nematodes can be found at

The Microbiology Portal at offers a remarkably comprehensive introduction to all areas of microbiology with numerous links to explore specific topics.

Descriptions and pictures of plant diseases commonly found in Brazil are present in a well-constructed, richly illustrated searchable database called Herbario de Fitopathologia at In Portuguese.

Purdue University Plant Pathology Outreach
The Botany and Plant Pathology Outreach Programs offers resources that can be used in classrooms, ideas for science projects, or to increase public awareness about plant science and plant disease related topics.

The Gateway to Educational Materials. site provides links to useful education pages on the Internet. An easy-to-use search engine with a filter to select for grade level makes the site especially convenient.

Gramene ( is a searchable, comprehensive gene mapping resource for rice, maize and wild rice.

Forestry Images. This well organized site offers outstanding images of all aspects of forestry, and has a specific section on diseases.

Frank Potter's Science Gems is a collection of more than 14,000 science resources sorted by category, subcategory and grade level (K-16).

MycoKey Mycokey contains a wealth of information and pictures of 282 genera and about 1,150 species of fungi; the text is in English and Danish.

Ohio State University Plant Dictionary This site is an encyclopedia and hypermedia resource of information about plants with over 5,000 images and searchable databases.

The Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory of the Agricultural Research Service. This site contains, among other things, an outstanding database of plant-associated fungi.

Tom Volk's Fungi:
A wonderful collection of images, fungal portraits each month, and a list of harmful fungi for Thanksgiving and beneficial fungi for Christmas.

Websites Devoted to Specific Diseases, Pathogens or Crops

Bananas, Cocoa and Coffee This site is maintained by CABI, a leading global not-for-profit organization specializing in sustainable solutions for agricultural and environmental problems.

Blue Mold Forecast Homepage Forecasts are generated from March through August for the occurrence of blue mold of tobacco and the future movement of inoculum across North America.

California Oak Mortality Task Force This homepage reports the current status of Sudden Oak Death in the state.

Cereal Disease Laboratory This is a great source of information about rusts, Fusarium head blight, karnal bunt and many other diseases of cereal grains.

The Council for Biotechnology maintains a comprehensive site at; text is in English, French and Spanish, and there is a section specifically designed for Teachers and Students. This site is a good source of background information on biotechnology, especially societal issues.

Cucurbits: cucumbers, gourds, melons and pumpkins

Eastern Filbert Blight Help Page Anyone who grows or enjoys filberts (hazelnuts) should check out this site.

Plant Disease Central This site is an aid to educators and crop consultants in the diagnosis of field crop diseases in Nebraska and surrounding states.

Plant Viroids and Viruses
Links to useful sites concerning plant viroids and viruses.

Vegetable MD Online. This site is maintained by the Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University. It covers only diseases of vegetable crops and is an excellent source of information and images.

Year-round viewing of a cornfield in Iowa is available at Soybeancam and dairycam are also offered.

Plant Pathology on the Airwaves

Go to the National Public Radio WebSite at, Select a Program, and then Click on Archives for items that have been broadcast about plant pathology.

Program Date Story
Bryant Park Project BPP Newscast Apr-18-2008 Top of the News, Sudden oak death
Talk of the Nation Feb-29-2008 Bacteria Assists in Formation of Ice and Snow, a plant pathogen can be involved in frost damage to plants, but also in snow formation
Day to Day Mar-17-2008 White House Overrules EPA on Air Quality Standards. Plant pathology includes studies of air quality effects on plants
Talk of the Nation Jun-09-2006 Plant Diseases Imperil Chocolate Production
Talk of the Nation May-05-2006 Are Genetically Modified Crops Safe?
Weekend Edition May 26, 2005 Saving Chestnut Trees
Weekend Edition March 13, 2005 Elm Trees Stage a Comeback
Talk of the Nation February 11, 2005 'Open Source' Biology, a way to do common genetic modifications on plants that sidesteps some existing patent restrictions
All Things Considered December 2, 2004 Soybean Rust Plagues U.S. Crops
All Things Considered November 10, 2004 Report Urges End to Spread of Modified Corn in Mexico
Morning Edition April 12, 2004 Calif. Nurseries Feel Pinch from Fungus (Phytophthora ramorum)
Talk of the Nation March 5, 2004 Genetically Engineered Organisms
All Things Considered March 26, 2004 Father of 'Green Revolution' Derides Organic Movement (Norman Borlaug)
Morning EditionJuly 18, 2003Sudden Oak Death
All Things ConsideredSeptember 12, 2002Sudden Oak Death
Weekend Edition - SaturdayJuly 20, 2002Potato Famine
All Things ConsideredJune 24, 2002Florida Battles Citrus Canker
All Things ConsideredJune 20, 2002Is Global Warming Nurturing Parasites?
Morning EditionMarch 22, 2002Quorn
All Things ConsideredFebruary 22, 2002Genetically Engineered Crops
All Things ConsideredDecember 6, 2001Crop Terrorism
All Things ConsideredNovember 28, 2001Biotech Genes Found in Wild Maize in Mexico
Morning Edition November 21, 2001Sudden Oak Death
Morning EditionNovember 15, 2001Lords of the Harvest
Morning Edition April 5, 2001Sharpshooter Infestation
All Things ConsideredDecember 26, 2000GM Seeds in India
All Things ConsideredJuly 5, 2000Genetically Modified Foods
All Things ConsideredMarch 6, 2000Citrus Canker
All Things ConsideredJanuary 31, 2000Genetically Modified Foods
All Things ConsideredDecember 12, 1999Genetically Modified Foods
Weekend All Things ConsideredAugust 8, 1999Killer Weed, Killer Fungus
All Things ConsideredOctober 26, 1998Crop Fungus
Morning EditionJune 8, 1998Fungus Infects Crops
Talk of the NationMarch 17, 1997The History of The Irish Potato Famine
All Things ConsideredJune 18, 1996

Karnal Bunt


Agricultural Biotechnology, Transgenic Crops and Genetically Modified Food

Free, user-friendly access to agricultural biotechnology patents from four major worldwide databases is available at Information for novices in the field, including tutorials, is also provided. Reports, background information, and newsletters are available on this well designed site.

The Partnership for Plant Genomics Education maintains a comprehensive website that includes curriculum materials and educational software at

Purdue University - Introduction to Agricultural Biotechnology. This clearly written and well illustrated site provides 19 concise lessons about biotechnology in agriculture. Step-by-step introductions to the basic science and fundamental issues are the major topics addressed. site provides an intelligible introduction to many issues related togenetic engineering in general. This website provides information about and links to other resources on issues surrounding transgenic or genetically modified crops. The authors are engaged in plant genetics research and teaching and receive no funds from companies involved in transgenic crop development nor are they affiliated with groups campaigning against such crops.

Thoughtful, balanced answers to questions about why genetically engineered food crops are developed, how their safety is determined and how they affect the global food system are available at

Plant Pathology Extension and/or Education Activities in Various States

Many of these sites feature outstanding images.
New York
South Carolina

Great short courses on basic botanical concepts for Master Gardeners are available in the online modules from Oregon State at

Miscellaneous: A Variety of Sites Related to Plant Pathology

Timely news on biotechnology, links to agriculture

EXCITE Although not specifically plant related, EXCITE is a self-contained collection of materials to introduce students (middle grades and up) to epidemiology in a comprehensive way.

Plant Genebanks: Food Security
Genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture. This site is dedicated to Plant Genebanks from the perspective of food security.

The Science Lab.Com (Biology)
General links to botany, virology, mycology, microbiology

Seed Pathology Committee of the Brazilian Association of Seed Technology This website includes a manual for seed health testing, with pathogen descriptions and pictures of colonies; the text is in Portuguese.

Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Cent​er This site covers a vast range of topics in tropical agriculture; the text is in English and Spanish.

INCAPER This site contains information about plant diseases in Brazil; the text is in Portuguese.

The Public and Pesticides: Exploring the Interface This site aims mainly at exploring the interfaces among public perception, science, communication and public policy regarding pesticides.

Plant Pathogen Identification Laboratory PPIL is a service center located at North Carolina State University that uses state of the art morphological and molecular methods to identify plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria of importance locally, nationally, and internationally.

Wisconsin FastPlants Page

Irish Potato Famine:

Grosse Ile National Historic Site Grosse Ile is maintained by Parks Canada as a memorial to the more than 5,000 immigrants who died on the island after leaving Ireland during the Great Irish Famine.

Strokestown Park This museum is 60 miles northwest of Dublin, Ireland, where The Famine Museum is located.

Image sets:

Virus Diseases of Plants: Grapevine, Potato, and Wheat Image Collection and Teaching Resource
Fundamental Fungi Image Collection & Teaching Resource CD-ROM

Microbe sources:

American Type Culture Collection
10801 University Blvd.
Manassas, VA 20110
Phone 800-638-6597 or 703-365-2700
FAX 703-365-2750
ATCC is the national collection of microorganisms for the United States and is comprehensive source for bacteria, fungi, mycoplasmas and other microbes.

Carolina Biological Supply Company
P. O. Box 6010
Burlington NC 27215
Phone: (US and Canada): 800-334-5551
FAX: 800-222-7112
International Orders: 336-584-0381
Carolina Biological Supply is a comprehensive source for microbial cultures, teaching kits, plants, and other supplies for biological education.

5100 West Henrietta Road
Post Office Box 92912
Rochester, New York 14692-9012
Phone (US and Canada): 800-962-2660
FAX: 800-635-8439
Ward's is a comprehensive source for microbial cultures, teaching kits, plants, and other supplies for biological education.

Presque Isle Cultures
P. O. Box 8191
Presque Isle, PA 16505
Phone: 814-833-6262
FAX: 814-833-2834
Presque Isle Cultures is a reliable source of bacterial, fungal and viral cultures.