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Phenotypic Characterization of Multifungicide Resistance in Botrytis cinerea Isolates from Strawberry Fields in Florida

March 2013 , Volume 97 , Number  3
Pages  393 - 401

A. Amiri , S. M. Heath , and N. A. Peres , University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimauma, FL 33598

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Accepted for publication 9 October 2012.

Chemical control has always been essential for the management of gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, to ensure sustainable strawberry production. However, lack of knowledge about actual resistance development may have disastrous consequences and lead to severe epidemics such as the one that affected several strawberry fields in 2012 in Florida. In this study, we tested 392 isolates collected from Florida strawberry fields between 2010 and 2012 for their sensitivity to boscalid (Bosc), a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SdhI); pyraclostrobin, a quinone outside inhibitor (QoI); boscalid + pyraclostrobin (Pristine); fenhexamid, a hydroxyanilide (Hyd); pyrimethanil and cyprodinil, anilinopyrimidines; fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole; and fludioxonil + cyprodinil (Switch). The respective resistance frequencies for boscalid, pyraclostrobin, Pristine, fenhexamid, cyprodinil, and pyrimethanil were 85.4, 86.5, 86.0, 44.4, 52.7, and 59.5%. Overall, 17.8 and 19.8% of isolates showed reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil and Switch, respectively. All fungicides sprayed preventively on detached strawberry fruit failed to control isolates with high levels of resistance to each fungicide except for fludioxonil and Switch. Four phenotypes with multifungicide resistance (MFR) were detected in B. cinerea populations from Florida. Isolates resistant to one fungicide (FR1), two (MFR2), three (MFR3), and four (MFR4) fungicides from different chemical groups represented 5.9, 28.6, 41.8, and 23.7% of the total resistant population, respectively. The MFR3 isolates were predominant and contained two subpopulations, the Bosc-QoI-APR isolates (56.5%) and the Bosc-QoI-HydR isolates (40.6%). In addition to reporting on very highly resistant populations to boscalid and QoI fungicides, we show evidence for a widespread multifungicide resistance to B. cinerea that warrants immediate implementation of novel management strategies to impede the development of more resistant populations.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society