J. Hrustić and
M. Mihajlović, Scolar of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia;
B. Tanović, Laboratory of Applied Phytopathology, Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia; and
B. Krstić, and
A. Bulajić, Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Phytopathology, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia. This research was supported by grants III 46008 and III 43001 of the Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia
In August 2011, nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica (Suckow) C. K. Schneid) fruit originated from Oplenac region with symptoms of fruit rot was collected at a green market in Belgrade. Fruit had large, brown, sunken lesions covered with grayish brown tufts. Symptoms resembled those caused by species of Monilinia including M. laxa, M. fructigena, or M. fructicola (2). In order to isolate the causal organism, small superficial fragments of pericarp were superficially disinfected with commercial bleach and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The majority (32 out of 33) isolates formed rosetted non-sporulating colonies with lobed margins resembling those of M. laxa. However, one isolate (Npgm) produced an abundant, grayish-white colony with even margins and concentric rings of sporogenous mycelium, resembling those described for M. fructicola (2). Conidia were one-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid to lemon shaped, 7.38 to 14.76 × 4.92 to 9.84 μm, and borne in branched monilioid chains. The average daily growth on PDA at 24°C was 10.9 mm. A single-spore isolate of Npgm was identified as M. fructicola based on the morphology of colony and conidia, temperature requirements, and growth rate (2). Morphological identification was confirmed by an amplified product of 535 bp using genomic DNA extracted from the mycelium of pure culture and species-specific PCR for the detection of M. fructicola (2). The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of Npgm was amplified and sequenced using primers ITS1/ITS4. Sequence analysis of ITS region revealed 100% nucleotide identity between the isolate Npgm (GenBank Accession No. JX127303) and 17 isolates of M. fructicola from different parts of the world, including four from Europe (FJ411109, FJ411110, GU967379, JN176564). Pathogenicity of the isolate Npgm was confirmed by inoculating five surface-disinfected mature nectarine and five apple fruits by placing a mycelial plug under the wounded skin of the fruit. Nectarine and apple fruits inoculated with sterile PDA plugs served as a negative controls. After a 3-day incubation at 22°C, inoculated sites developed brown lesions and the pathogen was succesfully reisolated. There were no symptoms on the control nectarine or apple fruits. M. fructicola is commonly present in Asia, North and South America, New Zealand, and Australia, while in the EPPO Region the pathogen is listed as an A2 quarantine organism (3). In Europe, the first discovery of M. fructicola was reported in France and since then, it has been found in Hungary, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Spain, Slovenia, Italy, Austria, Poland, Romania, Germany, and Slovakia (1). Most recently, M. fructicola was found on stored apple fruits in Serbia (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. fructicola decaying peach fruit in Serbia. These findings suggest that the pathogen is spreading on its principal host plants and causing substantial economic losses in the Serbian fruit production.
References: (1) R. Baker et al. European Food Safety Authority. Online publication. www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal. EFSA J. 9:2119, 2011. (2) M. J. Côté. Plant Dis. 88:1219, 2004. (3) OEPP/EPPO. EPPO A2 list of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests. Version 2009-09. http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm. (4). M. Vasic et al. Plant Dis. 96:456, 2012.