T. L. Peever, and
First, second, third, fourth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and eleventh authors: United Graduate School and Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795 Japan; fifth author: Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 Japan; sixth author: Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 Japan; and tenth author: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6430.
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Accepted for publication 13 October 2008.
The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACT-toxin and causes Alternaria brown spot disease. Sequence analysis of a genomic cosmid clone identified a part of the ACTT gene cluster and implicated two genes, ACTT5 encoding an acyl-CoA synthetase and ACTT6 encoding an enoyl-CoA hydratase, in the biosynthesis of ACT-toxin. Genomic Southern blots demonstrated that both genes were present in tangerine pathotype isolates producing ACT-toxin and also in Japanese pear pathotype isolates producing AK-toxin and strawberry pathotype isolates producing AF-toxin. ACT-, AK-, and AF-toxins from these three pathotypes share a common 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid moiety. Targeted gene disruption of two copies of ACTT5 significantly reduced ACT-toxin production and virulence. Targeted gene disruption of two copies of ACTT6 led to complete loss of ACT-toxin production and pathogenicity and a putative decatrienoic acid intermediate in ACT-toxin biosynthesis accumulated in mycelial mats. These results indicate that ACTT5 and ACTT6 are essential genes in ACT-toxin biosynthesis in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata and both are required for full virulence of this fungus.
Additional keywords:citrus, host-specific toxin, toxin biosynthesis gene cluster.
© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society