Peter J. M.
Laurens P. N. M.
Eugène J. A.
First, third, fifth, and seventh authors: Research Institute for Plant Protection, P.O. Box 9060, 6700 GW Wageningen, the Netherlands; second and fourth authors: National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL; and sixth author: Bulb Research Centre, P.O. Box 85, 2160 AB Lisse, the Netherlands
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Accepted for publication 5 May 2000.
The monophyletic origin of host-specific taxa in the plant-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum complex was tested by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based phylogenies for 89 strains representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity in 8 formae speciales associated with wilt diseases and root and bulb rot. We included strains from clonal lineages of F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, lilii, lini, opuntiarum, spinaciae, and tulipae. Putatively nonpathogenic strains from carnation and lily were included and a reference strain from each of the three main clades identified previously in the F. oxysporum complex; sequences from related species were used as outgroups. DNA sequences from the nuclear translation elongation factor 1α and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) ribosomal RNA genes were combined for phylogenetic analysis. Strains in vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) shared identical sequences and AFLP profiles, supporting the monophyly of the two single-VCG formae speciales, lilii and tulipae. Identical genotypes were also found for the three VCGs in F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae. In contrast, multiple evolutionary origins were apparent for F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, lini, and opuntiarum, although different VCGs within each of these formae speciales often clustered close together or shared identical EF-1α and mtSSU rDNA haplotypes. Kishino-Hasegawa analyses of constraints forcing the monophyly of these formae speciales supported the exclusive origin of F. oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum but not the monophyly of F. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, and lini. Most of the putatively nonpathogenic strains from carnation and lily, representing unique VCGs, were unrelated to F. oxysporum f. spp. dianthi and lilii, respectively. Putatively nonpathogenic or rot-inducing strains did not form exclusive groups within the molecular phylogeny. Parsimony analyses of AFLP fingerprint data supported the gene genealogy-based phylogram; however, AFLP-based phylogenies were considerably more homoplasious than the gene genealogies. The predictive value of the forma specialis naming system within the F. oxysporum complex is questioned.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2000