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Disease Development and Symptom Expression of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in Various Citrus Plant Tissues

July 2003 , Volume 93 , Number  7
Pages  832 - 843

C. J. Vernière , T. R. Gottwald , and O. Pruvost

First author: CIRAD-FLHOR, TA50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cédex 5, France; second author: U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Horticultural Research Laboratory, Fort Pierce, FL 34945; and third author: CIRAD, Pôle de Protection des Plantes (3P), 97410 Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France

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Accepted for publication 4 March 2003.

Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions on Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease expression and 184 different factor combinations were investigated to determine the parameters needed to explain Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) disease expression. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), inoculation date (Id), fruit and leaf age ratings (FAR and LAR), and number of days during the first 2 weeks postinoculation for which the temperature was less than 14°C (Tmin) or more than 28°C (Tmax) were retained by principal component analysis and canonical correlation analysis as the most meaningful epidemic and environmental variables, respectively. AUDPC as the strongest dependent variable and combinations of the environmental variables as independent variables were used in multiple regression analyses. Tissue age rating at the time of infection was a good predictor for disease resulting from spray inoculation on fruits and leaves and also on fruits following a wound inoculation. Temperature, as expressed by Tmin or Tmax, was also a significant factor in determining disease development described by AUDPC. Mature green stems were highly susceptible after wounding, similarly to leaves, but buds and leaf scars expressed the lowest susceptibility. These variations in disease expression according to the tissues will have different impacts on ACC epidemiology.

Additional keywords: disease control, environmental effects, modeling

The American Phytopathological Society, 2003