A. B. Sahana and
C. R. Adkar-Purushothama, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-cho 3, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan;
G. Chennappa, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 570 006, India;
Z. X. Zhang, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-cho 3, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan;
M. Y. Sreenivasa, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 570 006, India; and
T. Sano, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-cho 3, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan
During March through July 2012, 10 to 15% of the Vitis vinifera cultivars Thompson Seedless and Anab-e-Shahi exhibited yellow leaf spots and flecks, shortened internodes, and tiny yellow leaves in vineyards of the Bijapur, Doddaballapur, and Kolar districts of Karnataka State, India. These are the major grapevine cultivation regions in India. Samples were collected from four different plants from each district (12 samples in total) and RNA was extracted using 2X CTAB buffer (1). Presence of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid1 (GYSVd-1, genus Apscaviroid) was tested by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primer pair PBCVd100C/194H (4) for the amplification of a 220-bp region of the genome. In agarose gel electrophoresis, five samples showed amplicons of the expected size. These amplicons were cloned and sequenced. BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of GYSVd-1. Based on this data, the full-length genome of GYSVd-1 was amplified by RT-PCR using primer pair 341M (5′-CACTCGCGGGGCGCGTTGGA-3′) and 342P (5′-CAATCCCCGGAACCCCCGCT-3′) and the amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed two sequence variants namely Kar-1 (GenBank Accession No. AB742222) and Kar-2 (AB742223) with 98% and 99% identity to GYSVd-1 variants IXc (X87913) and II (X87906), respectively. GYSVd-1 variants Kar-1 and Kar-2 clustered in two distinct phylogenetic sub-clades. All 12 samples also tested positive for Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd, genus Hostuviroid) in two separate sets of RT-PCR using HSV-78P (5′-AACCCGGGGCAACTCTTCTC-3′) and HSV-83M (5′-AACCCGGGGCTCCTTTCTCA-3′); and HSV-7P (5′-AATTCTCGAGTTGCCGC-3′) and HSV-220M (5′-CGAACCGAGAGGTGATGCCA-3′), with the expected size of 303 and 213 bp, respectively (3). Sequence analysis of the amplicons confirmed the presence of HpSVd. Alignment of HpSVd nucleotide sequences obtained from the 12 samples showed the presence of a single type of sequence variant, namely Ind-2 (AB742225). BLAST analysis showed 99% sequence identity of Ind-2 with a HpSVd variant isolated from a 100-year-old grapevine in China. All 12 grapevine samples were also tested for the presence of Australian grapevine viroid (AGVd, genus Apscaviroid), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd 2, genus Apscaviroid), and Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, genus Pospiviroid) by RT-PCR as described previously (2). None of the samples showed any positives. Northern blot assay using appropriate digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes performed as described previously (2) further confirmed RT-PCR results. Positive controls for RT-PCR and Northern blot were obtained from viroid-infected grapevines maintained in the greenhouse. GYSVd-1 and HpSVd were detected in symptomatic and symptomless plants. Hence, the symptoms observed in the vineyard cannot be attributed to viroid infection. More work is needed to identify the causal agent(s) of the decline of Thompson Seedless and Anab-e-Shadi cultivars.
References: (1) C. R. Adkar-Purushothama et al. Plant Dis. 97:149, 2013. (2) D. Jiang et al. Virus Res, 169:237, 2012. (3) Y. Kawaguchi-Ito et al. PLoS One 4:e8386, 2009. (4) L. I. Ward et al. Plant Dis. 95:617, 2011.