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Fungicides Used Alone, in Combinations, and in Rotations for Managing Gladiolus Rust in Mexico

November 2013 , Volume 97 , Number  11
Pages  1,491 - 1,496

A. J. Valencia-Botín, Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Col. Lindavista, Ocotlán, Jalisco, México 47810; S. N. Jeffers, School of Agricultural, Forest, and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; C. L. Palmer, IR-4 Project, Princeton, NJ; and J. W. Buck, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Georgia Station, Griffin 30223

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Accepted for publication 23 May 2013.

Gladiolus rust, caused by Uromyces transversalis, is a quarantine-significant pathogen in the United States. However, the fungus is endemic to commercial gladiolus-producing areas in Mexico and has been intercepted frequently on gladiolus plants entering the United States for the cut-flower market. The present study assessed 15 fungicide active ingredients (five quinone outside inhibitors: azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin; six triazoles: cyproconazole, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, and tebuconazole; three succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors: boscalid, flutolanil, and oxycarboxin; and one broad-spectrum protectant: chlorothalonil) and one plant activator, acibenzolar-S-methyl, applied alone, in combinations, and in various rotations for efficacy against U. transversalis on field-grown gladiolus plants in Mexico. Experiments were conducted in 2010, 2011, and 2012 in commercial fields in Atlixco and Santa Isabel Cholula in Puebla and Cuautla and Tlayacapan in Morelos. Fungicides were applied at 2-week intervals starting when plants had three full leaves. Disease severity was recorded each week for at least 7 weeks after the first application. Under high disease pressure in 2010, fungicides were less effective than in 2011 and 2012, when disease pressure was not as high. In all 3 years, most fungicide treatments significantly reduced disease severity. Triazoles were more effective than quinone outside inhibitors when applied as individual products in 2010, and combinations of two fungicides in different mode-of-action groups were more effective than fungicides applied individually in 2011. In 2012, rotations of fungicides, either with individual products or with combinations of two products, provided excellent rust management. Reducing disease development by U. transversalis on commercial gladiolus plants in Mexico will reduce the potential for introducing this pathogen on cut flowers into the United States.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society