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First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum capsici on Bok Choy (Brassica chinensis) in Malaysia

May 2013 , Volume 97 , Number  5
Pages  687.3 - 687.3

F. Mahmodi, J. B. Kadir, M. Y. Wong, A. Nasehi, and N. Soleimani, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; and A. Puteh, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

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Accepted for publication 18 October 2012.

Bok choy (Brassica chinensis L.) is a temperate vegetable grown in the cool highland areas of Malaysia. In June 2010, vegetable growing areas of the Cameron Highlands, located in Pahang State, Malaysia, were surveyed for the prevalence of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species. Diseased samples were randomly collected from 12 infested fields. Anthracnose incidence on bok choy varied from 8 to 36% in different nursery fields. Disease symptoms initially appeared as small water-soaked spots scattered on the leaf petioles of young plants. As these spots increased in size, they developed irregular round spots that turned to sunken grayish brown lesions surrounded by brownish borders. When the lesions were numerous, leaves collapsed. Pale buff to salmon conidial mass and acervuli were observed on well-developed lesions. The acervuli diameter varied in size from 198 to 486 μm, averaging 278.5 μm. Morphological and cultural characteristics of the fungus were examined on potato dextrose agar incubated for 7 days at 25 ± 2°C under constant fluorescent light. Vegetative mycelia were hyaline, septate, branched, and 2 to 7 μm in diameter. The color of the fungal colonies was grayish brown. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, falcate, apices acute, and 21.8 to 28.5 × 2.6 to 3.4 mm. Setae were pale brown to dark brown, 75 to 155 μm long, base cylindrical, and tapering towards the acute tip. Appressoria were solitary or in dense groups, light to dark brown, entire edge to lobed, roundish to clavate, 6.5 to 14 × 5.8 to 8.6 μm, averaging 9.2 × 6.8 μm, and had a L/W ratio of 1.35. Based on the keys outlined by Mordue 1971 (2) and Sutton 1980 (3), the characteristics of this fungus corresponded to Colletotrichum capsici. Sequence analysis of the ITS-rDNA obtained from the Malaysian strain CCM3 (GenBank Accession No. JQ685746) using primers ITS5 and ITS4 (1) when aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. capsici strains (DQ286158, JQ685754, DQ286156, GQ936210, and GQ369594). A representative strain CCM3 was used for pathogenicity testing. Four non-infected detached leaves of 2-week-old B. chinensis were surface-sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of conidial suspension (106 conidia ml–1) using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method, and distilled water was used as a control (1). Leaves were incubated at 25°C, 98% RH. The experiment was repeated twice. Five days after inoculation, typical anthracnose symptoms with acervuli formation appeared on the surface of tissues inoculated with the spore suspension, but not on the water controls. A fungus with the characteristics of C. capsici was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated leaves. Anthracnose caused by C. capsici has been reported on different vegetable crops, but not on bok choy (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. capsici causing anthracnose on bok choy in Malaysia.

References: (1) R. Ford et al. Aust. Plant Pathol. 33:559, 2004. (2) J. E. M. Mordue. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Commonwealth Mycol. Inst., Kew, UK. 1971. (3) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (4) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society