L. Waeyenberge, and
N. Viaene, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Crop Protection, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 96, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium; and
T. van Hoenselaar and
G. Karssen, Plant Protection Service, P.O. Box 9102, 6700 HC, Wageningen, The Netherlands
In 2011, second-stage juveniles (J2) of an unknown root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) were detected during a routine survey for root-knot nematodes on arable land in Harveng, Belgium, after a crop of wheat. Most of the loamy soil samples (36 out of 42) contained J2 of the common root-knot nematode M. naasi Franklin, 1965 (1), while 15 of these also contained the unknown species, albeit in lower densities (22 J2/100 ml vs. 157 J2/100 ml soil). After detailed morphological observation of the unknown J2, they were until further notice identified as Meloidogyne artiellia Franklin, 1961 (2), the British root-knot nematode. To confirm the identification, a pure culture of M. artiellia was established by adding nematode suspensions to pots planted with kale (Brassica oleracea var. laciniata), a non-host for M. naasi (3). After 2 months, Meloidogyne spp. females, males, and J2 were isolated from galled kale roots. Morphological characteristics (n = 25) from the perineal pattern (rounded with fine striae, lateral area with coarse ridges, angular dorsal arch) and stylet knobs (small, ovoid, and backwardly sloping) for the females, the head shape (set off with distinct head cap) and stylet knobs (small, ovoid and backwardly sloping) for the males, the hemizonid position (anterior, adjacent to S to E pore), tail shape (conical), and short tail length (18 to 27 μm) for the J2, fit with previous observed populations of M. artiellia (3). Young egg-laying females were used for isozyme electrophoresis, and showed typical malate dehydrogenase (N1b) and esterase (M2-VF1) patterns (3). Additionally, DNA was extracted from single juveniles by incubating them in a lysis buffer (200 mM NaCl, 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8), 1% β-mercaptoethanol and 800 μg/ml Proteinase K) during 1.5 h at 65°C and 5 min at 99°C in a thermocycler. One microliter of crude DNA extract was used for PCR. ITS-rDNA sequencing (GenBank Accession Numbers JX393299 and JX393300) confirmed the identity, showing a 98 to 100% homology with other M. artiellia sequences (AY150368 and AF248478). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the root-knot nematode, M. artiellia, in Belgium. This nematode has been reported from the Mediterranean area, where it causes damage on chickpea and wheat (4), as well as from the U.K. Its finding in Harveng, close to the French border, suggests a more extensive geographical distribution.
References: (1) M. T. Franklin. Nematologica 11:79, 1965. (2) M. T. Franklin et al. Suppl.:85, 1961. (3) G. Karssen. Pages 93-97 in: The Plant-Parasitic Nematode Genus Meloidogyne Göldi, 1892 (Tylenchida) in Europe, Brill Leiden, The Netherlands, 2002. (4) M. Di Vito and N. Greco. Revue Nématol. 11:223, 1988.