D. Nikolić, and
B. Krstić, Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Phytopathology, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia. This research was supported by grant III-43001 of the Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia
In July 2011, greenhouse-grown chrysanthemum hybrid plants (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) with symptoms resembling those associated with tospoviruses were observed in the Kupusina locality (West Bačka District, Serbia). Disease incidence was estimated at 40%. Symptomatic plants with chlorotic ring spots and line patterns were sampled and tested by double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA using polyclonal antisera (Bioreba AG, Reinach, Switzerland) against the two of the most devastating tospoviruses in the greenhouse floriculture industry: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) (2). Commercial positive and negative controls and extracts from healthy chrysanthemum tissue were included in each ELISA. TSWV was detected serologically in 16 of 20 chrysanthemum samples and all tested samples were negative for INSV. The virus was mechanically transmitted from ELISA-positive chrysanthemum samples to five plants each of both Petunia × hybrida and Nicotiana tabacum ‘Samsun’ using chilled 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7) containing 0.1% sodium sulfite. Inoculated plants produced local necrotic spots and systemic chlorotic/necrotic concentric rings, consistent with symptoms caused by TSWV (1). The presence of TSWV in ELISA-positive chrysanthemum plants and N. tabacum‘Samsun’ was further confirmed by conventional reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Total RNAs were extracted with an RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). RT-PCR was performed with the One-Step RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen) using primers TSWVCP-f/TSWVCP-r specific to the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene (4). A Serbian isolate of TSWV from tobacco (GenBank Accession No. GQ373173) and RNA extracted from a healthy chrysanthemum plant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. An amplicon of the correct predicted size (738-bp) was obtained from each of the plants assayed, and that derived from chrysanthemum isolate 529-11 was purified (QIAqick PCR Purification Kit, Qiagen) and sequenced (JQ692106). Sequence analysis of the partial N gene, conducted with MEGA5 software, revealed the highest nucleotide identity of 99.6% (99% amino acid identity) with 12 TSWV isolates deposited in GenBank originating from different hosts from Italy (HQ830186-87, DQ431237-38, DQ398945), Montenegro (GU355939-40, GU339506, GU339508), France (FR693055-56), and the Czech Republic (AJ296599). The consensus maximum parsimony tree obtained on a 705-bp partial N gene sequence of TSWV isolates available in GenBank revealed that Serbian TSWV isolate 529-11 from chrysanthemum was clustered in the European subpopulation 2, while the Serbian isolates from tomato (GU369723) and tobacco (GQ373172-73 and GQ355467) were clustered in the European subpopulation 1 denoted previously (3). The distribution of TSWV in commercial chrysanthemum crops is wide (2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of TSWV infecting chrysanthemum in Serbia. Since chrysanthemum popularity and returns have been rising rapidly, the presence of TSWV may significantly reduce quality of crops in Serbia.
References: (1) Anonymous. OEPP/EPPO Bull. 34:271, 2004. (2) Daughtrey et al. Plant Dis. 81:1220, 1997. (3) I. Stanković et al. Acta Virol. 55:337, 2011. (4) A. Vučurović et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 133:935, 2012.