A. Jerković-Mujkić, and
S. Pilić, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Science, Zmaja od Bosne 33-35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and
A. Bulajić, and
B. Krstić, Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Phytopathology, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia. This research was supported by grant III-43001 of the Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia
Lamium maculatum L. (spotted dead-nettle) is a flowering perennial ornamental that is commonly grown as a landscape plant for an effective ground cover. In June 2010, severe mosaic accompanied by reddish brown necrosis and leaf deformation was noticed on 80% of L. maculatum growing in shade under trees and shrubs in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Leaves from 10 symptomatic L. maculatum plants were sampled and analyzed by double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA using commercial diagnostic kits (Bioreba AG, Reinach, Switzerland) against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), the most important viral pathogens of ornamental plants (1,2). Commercial positive and negative controls and extracts from healthy L. maculatum leaves were included in each assay. All samples tested negative for TSWV and INSV and positive for CMV. The virus was mechanically transmitted to test plants and young virus-free plants of L. maculatum using 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7). The virus caused chlorotic local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, while systemic mosaic was observed on Capsicum annuum ‘Rotund,’ Nicotiana rustica, N. glutinosa, N. tabacum ‘White Burley,’ and Phaseolus vulgaris ‘Top Crop.’ The virus was transmitted mechanically to L. maculatum and induced symptoms resembling those observed on the source plants. Inoculated plants were assayed by DAS-ELISA and all five inoculated plants of each species tested positive for CMV. The presence of CMV in L. maculatum as well as mechanically infected N. glutinosa plants was further confirmed by RT-PCR. Total RNA from symptomatic leaves was isolated using RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and RT-PCR was performed with the One-Step RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer's instructions. The primer pair, CMVAu1u/CMVAu2d, that amplifies the entire coat protein (CP) gene and part of 3′- and 5′-UTRs was used for both amplification and sequencing (4). Total RNA obtained from the Serbian CMV isolate from pumpkin (GenBank Accession No. HM065510) and a healthy L. maculatum plant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. All naturally and mechanically infected plants as well as the positive control yielded an amplicon of the expected size (850 bp). No amplicon was observed in the healthy control. The amplified product derived from isolate 3-Lam was purified (QIAquick PCR Purification Kit, Qiagen), directly sequenced in both directions and deposited in GenBank (JX436358). Sequence analysis of the CP open reading frame (657 nt), conducted with MEGA5 software, revealed that the isolate 3-Lam showed the highest nucleotide identity of 99.4% (99.1% amino acid identity) with CMV isolates from Serbia, Australia, and the USA (GQ340670, U22821, and U20668, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the natural occurrence of CMV on L. maculatum worldwide and it adds a new host to over 1,241 species (101 plant families) infected by this virus (3). This is also an important discovery for the ornamental industry since L. maculatum is commonly grown together with other ornamental hosts of CMV in nurseries and the urban environment as well as in natural ecosystems.
References: (1) Y. K. Chen et al. Arch. Virol. 146:1631, 2001. (2) M. L. Daughtrey et al. Plant Dis. 81:1220, 1997. (3) M. Jacquemond. Adv. Virus Res. 84:439, 2012. (4) I. Stankovic et al. Acta Virol. 55:337, 2011.