C. R. Adkar-Purushothama, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-cho 3, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan;
H. Nagaraja and
M. Y. Sreenivasa, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 570 006, India; and
T. Sano, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Bunkyo-cho 3, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan
Members of the genus Coleviroid (Coleus blumei viroid [CbVd]), family Pospiviroidae have been reported to infect Coleus (Solenostemon sp.). CbVd-1 was first reported from Brazil, CbVd-2, -3, and -4 were first reported from Germany, whereas CbVd-5 and -6 were recently identified in China (2). In India, Coleus is extensively cultivated as an ornamental plant in home gardens. In March to June 2012, Coleus leaf samples with irregular chlorotic spots/patches were collected from home gardens of two different districts of Karnataka (Kodagu and Mysore districts), India, suspecting the presence of Coleus blumei viroids (CbVd 1 to 6). Low molecular weight RNAs were extracted using 2% CTAB buffer containing 1.4 M NaCl, 20 mM EDTA, pH 8.0 and 100 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0 (1). Viroid-like RNA was enriched by fractionation 2M LiCl soluble nucleic acids (4). A DNA fragment with the expected size of CbVd-1 was detected in 10 (including both districts) of 14 analyzed (incident rate of 71%) from reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay using Coleviroid specific primers (forward 5′-TGGATCCAGCGCTGCAACGGAATCCA-3′ and reverse 5′-TTGGATCCGCCAGGGAACCCAGGTAAG-3′). RT was performed at 37°C for 60 min in 25 μl reaction mix containing 5 μl RNA extracts, 1 μl reverse primer, 1× first strand buffer, 10 mM dNTPs, and 200U M-MuLV-RT (Invitrogen, USA). For PCR, 2 μl RT was mixed in 25 μl PCR mix containing 0.2 μM each forward and reverse primers and 2U LA Taq (Takara-Bio, Japan) according to the manufacturer's instruction. PCR parameter was one cycle at 94°C for 2 min, 35 cycles at 94°C for 45 s, 53°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 60 s, followed by final extension at 72°C for 10 min (4). Sequence analysis of cloned amplicons detected CbVd-1 in India. To confirm the sequence of the primer regions, an additional set of tail-tail primers were designed, CbVd1-136F (5′-CTTCGTGGAACGGCTCCGCG-3′) and CbVd1-136Rev (5′-GAAGAAGCCGAAGCAACTCTC-3′) and were used for RT-PCR. Amplified products were cloned, sequenced and compared with previously obtained data. Further, the presences of CbVd-1 in Coleus samples was confirmed by a RNA gel blot assay using digoxigenin-labeled CbVd-1 cRNA probe (3). Alignment of 19 sequences obtained from four representative Coleus samples found the presence of two sequence variants of CbVd-1, namely Ind-1 (GenBank Accession No. AB740017) and Ind-2 (AB740018). Ind-1 was found to differ from Ind-2 by two nucleotide substitutions at position 40 (C to T) and 211 (T to C). BLAST analysis of Ind-1 showed 100% sequence similarity with CbVd-1 isolates from China (DQ178399) and South Korea (EU 410620), whereas Ind-2 was 99% identical to these two Chinese and Koreans isolates. Furthermore, 97% and 96% sequence identity with CbVd 1-RL RNA (Accession no. X95366) was observed for Ind-1 and Ind-2, respectively. Isolates from India were 88% similar with Coleus blumei viroid 1-RG (X95291). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence for the presence of CbVd-1 infecting Coleus in India. Coleus harbors various viroid species and CbVd-1, reported widely, can transmit efficiently through seed and also could infect the other herbaceous plants (3). This report from India will contribute further understanding of a potential risk of Coleus viroids in ornamental species.
References: (1) J. J. Doyle and J. L. Doyle. Phytochem. Bull. 19:11, 1987. (2) F. H. Fu et al. Plant Dis. 95:494, 2011. (3) Ishiguro et al. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 62:84, 1996. (4) S.-F. Li et al., Plant Pathol. 55:565, 2006.