Pyrenophora teres Drechs. causes net blotch of barley, a common foliar disease in cultivation zones around the world. The disease occurs in two forms, namely a net form net blotch (NFNB) caused by P. teres f. teres and a spot form net blotch (SFNB) caused by P. teres f. maculata. As in other parts of the northern Great Plains, in the Mon-Dak area (western North Dakota and eastern Montana), NFNB is prevalent. SFNB was first reported in western Montana in 1983 (1) and more recently in eastern North Dakota in 2010 (3) but not in the Mon-Dak area. In the summer of 2011, unusual spot lesions that were surrounded by necrosis or chlorosis were observed on different barley cultivars in fields at Williston, ND, Nesson Valley, ND, and Sidney, MT areas. Diseased leaves from various barley cvs. from the three locations were transferred to water agar and incubated at room temperature for 24 h to induce sporulation. Morphological examination of conidia (45 to 169 × 15 to 21 μm) did not show significant differences from a known isolate of P. teres f. teres 0-1 (provided by Tim Friesen, ARS, Fargo, ND). For pathogenicity testing, six 14-day-old plants of barley cv. Tradition were sprayed until runoff with a 2,000 spore/ml suspension of two isolates from each location and the control P. teres f. maculata isolate DEN2.6 (provided by Tim Friesen). Plants were incubated first in a lighted humidity chamber for 24 h and then in a greenhouse for 7 days at 21°C. Regardless of inoculum source, spot lesions surrounded by necrosis or chlorosis, typical of SFNB, appeared on the inoculated leaves within 7 days. Fungi isolated from symptomatic leaves were identified as P. teres and the morphology of the conidia was undistinguishable from those of P. teres f. teres. All control plants which were sprayed with sterile distilled water were symptomless. The pathogenicity test was repeated. Rapid PCR detection and amplicon sequencing (2) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal genes was performed on field and pathogenicity test leaf lesion samples to confirm the presence of P. teres f. maculata. DNA templates were prepared using the Extract-N-Amp Plant PCR Kits (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) and subjected to PCR using ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Amplicons were then purified and sequenced. The 585-bp nucleotide sequences of P. teres f. maculata from Mon-Dak area were submitted to GenBank under accession nos. PtmNES1 (JX187587), PtmSDY1 (JX187588), PtmSDY2 (JX187589), and PtmWIL1 (JX187590). The sequences from the four locations shared 100% similarity and also with P. teres f. maculata (EF452471) from GenBank while showing 10 nucleotide differences (99% similarity) with P. teres f. teres (EF452472).The results represent first report of SFNB in the Mon-Dak. Barley is one of the most important crops in the area. Resistance of the NFNB and SFNB of barley are controlled by different genes (4). Based on this report, SFNB therefore have to be considered in selection of barley cultivars for cultivation in the area.
References: (1) H. E Bockelman et al. Plant Dis. 67:696, 1983. (2) R. T. Lartey et al. J. Sugar Beet Res. 40:1, 2003. (3) Z. H. Liu and T. L. Friesen. Plant Dis. 94:480, 2010. (4) O. M. Manninen et al. Genome. 46:1564, 2006.