A 3-year survey was conducted in Iowa to characterize the distribution and frequency of species of Fusarium associated with soybean roots. Ten plants were collected from each of 40 to 57 fields each year at V2 to V5 and R3 to R4 soybean growth stages. Fusarium colonies were isolated from symptomatic and symptomless roots and identified to species based on cultural and morphological characteristics. Species identification was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the translation elongation factor (EF1-α) gene. Fifteen species were identified; Fusarium oxysporum was isolated most frequently, accounting for more than 30% of all isolates. F. acuminatum, F. graminearum, and F. solani were also among the most frequent and widespread species. Eleven other species were recovered from few fields, accounting for less than 10% of all isolates in a given year. No consistent trends were observed in geographic distribution of species. Variability in species frequency was found between soybean growth stages. Fusarium oxysporum was recovered at higher frequency during vegetative stages (40%) than reproductive stages (22%). Conversely, species such as F. acuminatum, F. graminearum, and F. solani were recovered more often from reproductive-stage plants. No significant differences in species composition were observed among fields differing in tillage practices and row spacing.