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First Report on the Occurrence of A2 Mating Type of the Cucurbit Downy Mildew Agent Pseudoperonospora cubensis in China

April 2013 , Volume 97 , Number  4
Pages  559.1 - 559.1

Y. Cohen and A. E. Rubin, Faculty of Life Sciences Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Israel 52100; X. L. Liu, Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural University of China, Beijing; W. Q. Wang, Academy of Agricultural Sciences Hebei, Baoding, Hebei, China; Y. J. Zhang, North Eastern University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China; and D. Hermann, Syngenta Crop Protection, Stein, Switzerland

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Accepted for publication 3 December 2012.

Pseudoperonospora cubensis is a foliar pathogen of cucurbits. In cucumber, it produces chlorotic, angular lesions with dark sporangia on their under-surface. The distribution of pathotypes and mating types of P. cubensis were investigated in seven provinces in China. Twenty-nine isolates were obtained from Guangdong, Anhui, Hubei, Sichuan, Shandong, Beijing, and Harbin, one to six isolates from each province. They were collected from cucumber during summer 2011, except those from Harbin, which were collected from cucumber in summer 2012. Isolates were tested for pathogenicity and mating type. Pathogenicity was tested by inoculation of detached leaves of: cucumber (Cucumis sativum cvs. Bet-Alpha, SMR18), melon (Cucumis melo reticulatus cv. Ananas-Yokneam), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Tripoli), squash (Cucurbita pepo, cv. Beruti), butternut gourd (Cucurbita moschata cv. Waltham), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cv. Malali), and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica, cultivar unknown). Mating type was determined by oospore production in melon leaf discs inoculated with mixed sporangia of a test isolate and A1 or A2 tester isolates, as recently described (2). The results showed that 22 isolates belonged to pathotype 3, sporulating on cucumber and melon; five isolates belonged to pathotype 6, sporulating on cucumber, melon, pumpkin, squash, and butternut gourd; one isolate belonged to pathotype 5, sporulating on the above five species and watermelon (1), and one isolate was capable of sporulating on the mentioned five species and sponge gourd, herein called pathotype 7. Of the 29 isolates tested, 22 belonged to the A1 mating type, six to the A2 mating type, and one did not produce oospores with either testers. Of the six A2 isolates, two originated from Sichuan, one from Beijing, and three from Harbin. All 22 isolates belonging to pathotype 3 were A1, whereas the other six isolates (four pathotype 6, one pathotype 5, and one pathotype 7) were A2. Crosses made between Chinese isolates belonging to opposite mating types resulted in the formation of abundant oospores in detached melon or cucumber leaves. The results prove that the A2 mating type of P. cubensis occurs in China. This explains the abundant occurrence of oospores of P. cubensis in nature in China (4). The data corroborate with Runge et al. (3), who suggested that the recent changes in the population structure of P. cubensis around the world resulted from the migration of a new genotype of P. cubensis from the Far East to Europe and the U.S.A. In Israel, a new pathotype attacking both Cucumis and Cucurbita appeared in 2002 (1), and A2 mating type first appeared in 2010 (2).

References: (1) Y. Cohen et al. Phytoparasitica 31:458, 2003. (2) Y. Cohen and A. E. Rubin. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 132:577, 2012. (3) F. Runge et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 129:135, 2011. (4) Y. J. Zhang et al. J. Phytopathol. 160:469, 2012.

© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society