Yong Zhang, and
Wen-Xiang Wang, Institute of Plant Protection, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230031, China; and
Zhong Sun, and
Xin-Zhou Fang, College of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China; and
Ming-Guo Zhou, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum are the primary causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat in China. Carbendazim (a benzimadazole fungicide, MBC), has been extensively used for the control of FHB, resulting in severe MBC resistance in China. This article presents the baseline sensitivity of F. asiaticum and F. graminearum isolates from Anhui Province of China to fungicides pyraclostrobin (a quinone outside inhibitor) and epoxiconazole (a sterol demethylation inhibitor). In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for pyraclostrobin in inhibiting mycelial growth of the 126 F. asiaticum isolates and 63 F. graminearum isolates were 0.012 to 0.135 μg/ml and 0.010 to 0.105 μg/ml, and the EC50 values for pyraclostrobin in inhibiting conidium germination of the F. asiaticum and F. graminearum populations were 0.047 to 0.291 and 0.042 to 0.255 μg/ml, respectively. The EC50 values for epoxiconazole in inhibiting mycelial growth of the F. asiaticum and F. graminearum populations were 0.12 to 0.95 and 0.16 to 0.93 μg/ml, respectively. All of the baseline sensitivity curves were unimodal. This study also suggested that there was no cross-resistance between MBC and pyraclostrobin or epoxiconazole. In the protective and curative tests, pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole applied at 200 and 300 μg/ml exhibited over 75% protective and curative control efficacy in all treatments. In field trials, both pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole at 225 g a.i./ha provided over 80% efficacy in 2010 and 2011 at both sites where MBC resistance occurred, suggesting excellent activity against FHB. Interestingly, integrated use of pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole applied at 150 + 150 g a.i./ha provided over 85% efficacy at both sites in 2010 and 2011. Pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole should be good alternatives to MBC for the control of FHB, and integrated use of these two fungicides might achieve greater efficacy.