J. Mena-Covarrubias, and
L. R. Reveles-Torres, Campo Experimental Zacatecas-INIFAP, Calera de V. R., Zacatecas, CP 98500 México;
G. R. Argüello-Astorga, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216, Mexico; and
M. A. Salas-Luevano and
J. A. Mauricio-Castillo, Unidad Académica de Agronomía Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zac. 98000, México
In August 2009, yellowing, upward curling of leaves, and stunted growth were observed on 15 to 40% of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Aluvori) plants in each of several experimental fields in Zacatecas, Mexico. Symptoms and presence of the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus) in affected fields suggested an infection by curtoviruses (Geminiviridae). Total DNA extracts from 18 plant samples exhibiting symptoms were obtained by a modified Dellaporta method (2) and subjected to PCR analysis using two pairs of new, degenerate primers specific for curtoviruses: RepQEW-for (CCRAARTAAGMATCRGCCCAYTCTTG) in combination with CP450-rev (GTCCTCGAGTAGACGGCATAGCCTGACC) and V2Gen910-for (ATGTCGACGAAGCATTTGAAGTTTGATATGGC) with Rep2GQ-rev (GAAGATCTGCWCGMGGAGGYCARCAGACGGCT). This double set of primers was used to amplify two overlapping DNA segments encompassing the complete curtovirus genome. All samples produced amplicons of the expected size (1.75 and 1.8 kb, respectively) that were cloned into pGEM-T Easy Vector (Promega, Madison, WI). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR clones with EcoRI and HinfI endonucleases suggested the presence of a single curtovirus species because only one restriction fragment pattern was observed in all cases. Viral amplicons from three plants were sequenced, and the overlapping DNA fragments were subsequently assembled into a complete genome sequence. Comparison of the virus sequence (Accession No. HQ634913) with sequences of all curtovirus isolates available in GenBank showed that it shared the highest nucleotide identity (98%) with Beet mild curly top virus-Mexico SLP1 from pepper (BMCTV-MX [SLP1]; Accession No. EU586260). Amino acid sequence identity of the seven predicted proteins (Rep, TrAP, REn, C4, V1, V2, and V3) encoded by the virus isolated from bean plants shared 98.0, 97.3, 98.5, 98.8, 100, 99.2, and 97.8% sequence identity, respectively, with the homologous proteins of BMCTV-MX [SLP1]. A BMCTV isolate from pepper collected in Zacatecas in 2007 (Accession No. EU586260) with 96% nucleotide sequence identity to the curtovirus identified in bean induced symptoms in P. vulgaris cv. Topcrop similar to those observed in bean in Zacatecas (1). To determine the presence of curtoviruses in the local populations of insect vectors, beet leafhoppers were collected in one of the sampled dry bean fields and total DNA was isolated from a pool of approximately 20 insects. Amplification of viral DNA with the degenerate primers RepQEW-for and CP450-rev and further sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of a curtovirus DNA sharing almost identical nucleotide identity (99%) with the DNA isolated from bean plants. In 2011, symptoms similar to those observed in bean in 2009 occurred in approximately 30% of dry bean plants, suggesting that BMCTV is endemic in the Zacatecas Region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BMCTV in legumes in Mexico.
References: (1) L. F. Chen et al. Arch. Virol. 156:547, 2011. (2) S. L. Dellaporta et al. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 1:19, 1983.